7.4

 

Projected Cumulative Infrastructure Requirements in 2020, 2035, and 2050 for the Hydrogen Success (Case 1) Scenario,

 

96

7.5

 

Quantities Related to Infrastructure Estimates for the Hydrogen Success (Case 1) Scenario,

 

97

7.6

 

Summary of Cumulative Budget Roadmap Costs for Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles,

 

100

FIGURES

S.1

 

(Left) Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the U.S. light-duty fleet and (right) fraction of new hydrogen vehicles sold each year for the Hydrogen Success case,

 

8

S.2

 

(Left) Annual gasoline consumption, and (right) annual well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions for the Hydrogen Success Case relative to a reference case with no hydrogen vehicles,

 

8

S.3

 

Total annual expenditures for vehicles and hydrogen supply for transition to the breakeven year for the Hydrogen Success case,

 

10

S.4

 

Annual government expenditures through the transition to 2023,

 

12

S.5

 

Comparison of (left) annual gasoline use and (right) annual greenhouse gas emissions,

 

16

S.6

 

Impact of combined cases: (Left) annual gasoline use and (right) annual greenhouse gas emissions,

 

17

2.1

 

U.S. wind power capacity additions, 1999-2006,

 

27

3.1

 

ZEV panel vehicle market penetration estimates,

 

40

3.2

 

BMW assessment of on-board liquid hydrogen storage,

 

41

4.1

 

U.S. light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency and performance trends from 1975 to 2005,

 

45

4.2

 

U.S. hybrid electric vehicle sales through 2006,

 

46

4.3

 

Fuel consumption of light-duty vehicles with different power trains using projected 2030 technology compared to a typical 2005 gasoline-powered vehicle,

 

48

4.4

 

Projected sustainable biomass technically available in the United States by 2050, with aggressive energy crops,

 

53

4.5

 

Transesterification of vegetable oils,

 

57

4.6

 

Published estimates of range of impacts on net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil inputs for grain-based ethanol,

 

60

4.7

 

Primary energy inputs and net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline and ethanol,

 

60

4.8

 

Growth in production of corn-based ethanol in the United States,

 

61

5.1

 

Stationary power and the transportation system,

 

65

5.2

 

Energy source consumption for electricity generation,

 

66

5.3

 

Nationwide NOx and SO2 emissions from the power sector,

 

66

5.4

 

FutureGen concept for co-production of power and hydrogen,

 

68

5.5

 

Schematic of high-temperature fuel cell hybrid system,

 

70

5.6

 

Fueling capacity for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. power sector,

 

71

5.7

 

Advanced vehicle market penetration,

 

71

6.1

 

Hydrogen cases: Number of gasoline and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the fleet over time for three hydrogen cases,

 

74

6.2

 

Hydrogen cases: Fraction of new gasoline and hydrogen vehicles sold each year,

 

74

6.3

 

Reference case: Number of light-duty vehicles in the fleet,

 

77

6.4

 

Reference case: Assumed fuel economies for gasoline ICEVs and gasoline hybrid vehicles (HEVs),

 

77

6.5

 

Reference case: Assumed biofuel use,

 

77

6.6

 

Assumed retail prices for hydrogen and gasoline vehicles over time for Cases 1 and 1a (left) and Case 1b (right),

 

78

6.7

 

DOE plan for introduction of light-duty hydrogen vehicles into 27 “lighthouse” cities,

 

79

6.8

 

Fraction of gasoline stations offering hydrogen, 2000-2050,

 

79

6.9

 

Capacity of new hydrogen stations by year, 2000-2050,

 

79

6.10

 

Early infrastructure capital costs for Case 1,

 

80

6.11

 

Capital costs for hydrogen infrastructure,

 

80

6.12

 

Estimated average cost of delivered hydrogen in the United States and the assumed gasoline price,

 

80



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