Watershed councils and citizen groups should work within communities and with state and federal agencies to:

  • Use watershed councils as vehicles to meet multiple goals of integrated watershed management at the community level; and

  • Participate in watershed councils and help them grow in number and influence over watershed uses at the community level.


Forest hydrology science has produced a solid foundation of general principles that describe how water is connected to and moves through forests and how hydrologic processes respond to forest disturbance and forest management. The forest landscape is dynamic: it is continually changing in response to climate, natural disturbance, and forest management, as well as demographics and development patterns. Forest hydrology science and management are adapting as land use and ownership within forested watersheds become more heterogeneous, changes in climate and its effects are becoming more evident, and new technologies provide improved capability to predict and visualize cumulative watershed effects over larger spatial scales and longer periods of time. Building on the strong foundation of general principles of forest hydrology, new forest hydrology research can fill information gaps in the coming decades (Table S-2). Forests are essential for the sustainable provision of water to the nation. It is incumbent upon scientists, policy makers, land and water managers, and citizens to use the lessons of the past and apply emerging research, technology, and partnerships to protect and sustain water resources from forested landscapes.

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