in part because each assessment generally involves relatively few exercises. As a result, the assessments tend to have relatively low reliabilities, lower than those generally expected in high-stakes assessments—on the order of .80 or .90 (Guion, 1998).

There is a significant trade-off in this choice. The use of portfolios and performance assessments allows the national board to focus the assessment on the competencies that they view as the core of advanced teaching practice and therefore tend to improve the validity of the assessments as a measure of these core competencies. The use of these assessments may also enhance the credibility of the assessment for various groups of stakeholders. However, the use of these techniques makes it far more difficult to achieve desirable reliability levels than would be the case if the board relied on more traditional assessment techniques (e.g., performance assessments involving larger numbers of shorter exercises or, in the extreme case, short-answer questions or multiple-choice items).

The board has made a serious attempt to assess the core components of accomplished teaching and has adopted assessment methods (portfolio, samples of performance) that are particularly well suited to assessing accomplished practice. The board seems to have done a good job of developing and implementing the assessment in a way that is consistent with their stated goals. Validity requires both relevance to the construct of interest (in this case, accomplished teaching) and reliability. The NBPTS assessments seem to exhibit a high degree of relevance. Their reliability (with its consequences for decision consistency) could use improvement. We also note that the reliability estimates for the assessments tend to be reasonable for these assessment methods, although they do not reach the levels we would expect of more traditional assessment methods. The question is whether they are good enough in an absolute sense, and our answer is a weak yes; there are inherent disadvantages to the national board’s assessments that come along with its clear advantages.

On the basis of our review, we offer the following recommendations. We note that these recommendations are directed at the NBPTS, as our charge requested, but they highlight issues that should apply to any program that offers advanced-level certification to teachers.

Recommendation 5-1: The NBPTS should publish thorough technical documentation for the program as a whole and for individual specialty area assessments. This documentation should cover processes as well as products, should be readily available, and should be updated on a regular basis.

Recommendation 5-2: The NBPTS should develop a more structured process for deriving exercise content and scoring rubrics from the content

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