based assessment format, so that entry-level teachers would learn the foundational skills that lead to accomplished practice.

  • Professional development and inservice programs for teachers would focus on national board standards and practices. Eventually all teachers—not just those who became board certified—would learn the skills and practices endorsed by the board.

In the context of program evaluation, these sorts of far-reaching impacts are referred to as “spillover effects,” although that term is not intended to imply that they are extraneous or unimportant. They are also sometimes referred to as systemic or secondary effects or externalities (Rossi, Lipsey, and Freeman, 2004). In this chapter, we evaluate the extent to which spillover effects are evident. These kinds of effects were important elements in the overall goal the task force hoped to achieve with its multipronged reform approach. It is important to note, however, that the task force cautioned that none of its proposed strategies (of which the assessment-based certification program was one) “will succeed unless all are implemented” (Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, 1986, p. 57).

This chapter addresses our seventh question:

Question 7: Beyond its effects on candidates, to what extent and in what ways does the certification program have an impact on the field of teaching, the education system, or both?

Figure 2-1 shows where this question fits within our evaluation framework. We identified several kinds of influence an advanced-level certification program for teachers might have and framed specific questions about them:

  1. What are the effects of having one or more board-certified teachers in a school or district?

  2. Has the board-certification program had any effects on:

    • the course content, methods of preparation, and assessments used in teacher education programs or

    • the content of and strategies used in inservice training and professional development for practicing teachers?

  3. Has the board-certification program had any effects on the applicant pool for teacher education programs? Since the board came into existence, have there been changes in the numbers of individuals entering teacher education programs or the characteristics of the applicants?

  4. Has the existence of board certification had an impact on the allocation of teachers across districts and schools? Has the program



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