and economics at Carnegie Mellon University and a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

ADAM GAMORAN is a professor of sociology and educational policy studies and director of the Wisconsin Center for Education Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research focuses on inequality in education and school reform. He is the author or coauthor of books on school and district capacity to support teacher-driven instructional change, stratification in higher education, and standards-based reform and the poverty gap. Gamoran is an elected member of the National Academy of Education and has been a visiting professor at Tel Aviv University and the University of Edinburgh. At the National Academies, he has served on a variety of committees, including BICSE, and is currently a member of the Board on Science Education. He also chairs the Independent Advisory Panel of the National Assessment of Career and Technical Education for the U.S. Department of Education. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago (1984).

JANE HANNAWAY is the director of the Education Policy Center at the Urban Institute. She is an organizational sociologist whose work focuses on the study of educational organizations, specifically elementary/secondary schools, employment and education, school and teacher evaluations, standards-based reform, and vouchers. Her recent research focuses on structural reforms in education, particularly accountability, competition, and choice. She was recently appointed director of the Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Databases in Education at the Urban Institute. She has authored or coauthored several books and numerous papers in education and management journals. She is a past vice president of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and has served on its executive board. She is an elected member of the Council of the Association for Public Policy and Management. Hannaway has served on the editorial board of a number of journals and is past editor of Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, the main policy journal of the American Educational Research Association. She is currently on the executive board of the AERA. She has a Ph.D. in the sociology of education from Stanford University.

RICHARD INGERSOLL is professor of education and sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. Prior to his current position, Ingersoll was a faculty member in the Department of Sociology at the University of Georgia and as a classroom teacher in public and private schools. His research is concerned with the character of elementary and secondary schools as workplaces, teachers as employees, and teaching as a job. He has published nu-

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