Proceedings of a Workshop on Materials State Awareness

Emily Ann Meyer, Editor

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Proceedings of a Workshop on Materials State Awareness Emily Ann Meyer, Editor National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This project was supported by Contract No. 07-S508-009-13-C1 between the National Academy of Sciences and Universal Technology Corporation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-12165-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-12165-5 Available in limited quantities from the National Materials Advisory Board 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 nmab@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmab Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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MATERIALS STATE AWARENESS WORKSHOP ORGANIZING PANEL EDGAR A. STARKE, JR., University of Virginia, Chair RICHARD BOSSI, The Boeing Company LISA J.H. BRASCHE, Iowa State University Center for Nondestructive Evaluation JOHN C. DUKE, JR., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University THOMAS N. FARRIS, Purdue University ROBERT H. LATIFF, Science Applications International Corporation JIANGANG SUN, Argonne National Laboratory R. BRUCE THOMPSON, Iowa State University Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Institute for Physical Research and Technology REZA ZOUGHI, Missouri Institute of Science and Technology * Staff EMILY ANN MEYER, Program Officer TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator LAURA TOTH, Senior Project Assistant * The Missouri Institute of Science and Technology was formerly known as the University of Missouri-Rolla. v

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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD KATHARINE G. FRASE, IBM, Chair LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, Consultant, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Vice Chair PAUL BECHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory EVERETT E. BLOOM, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) BARBARA D. BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, Alcoa, Inc. (retired) L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University JOHN W. CAHN, University of Washington DIANNE CHONG, The Boeing Company PAUL CITRON, Medtronic, Inc. (retired) GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory SOSSINA M. HAILE, California Institute of Technology CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University ELIZABETH HOLM, Sandia National Laboratories DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., Stevens Institute of Technology ROBERT H. LATIFF, Science Applications International Corporation KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology LINDA SCHADLER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aircraft Engines JAMES C. SEFERIS, GloCal University STEVEN WAX, Strategic Analysis, Inc. Staff GARY FISCHMAN, Director MICHAEL MOLONEY, Senior Program Officer EMILY ANN MEYER, Program Officer TERI THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Preface In order to ensure effective military operations and continued warfighter safety, the functionality and integrity of the equipment used must also be ensured. Currently, effectiveness and safety are achieved by means of physical inspections that are useful in detecting and preventing catastrophic failures but cannot detect the deterioration of parts in real time. This shortcoming leads to higher equipment and materials costs than might be necessary. For the past several years, the Nondestructive Evaluation Branch at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has focused actively on the development of embedded sensing technologies for the real-time monitoring of damage states in aircraft, turbine engines, and aerospace structures. These sensing technologies must be developed for use in environments ranging from the normal to the extreme, confronting researchers with the need to understand issues involving (1) the reliability of and the bonding and attaching of sensors on structures, (2) wireless telemetry over near-system operating conditions, and (3) signal-processing methods for separating structural damage features from extraneous features. Much of this research has resulted in a successful understanding of and progress in developing the physics of the problem. Additionally, given the unique environments in which these sensors will function, there is a need to develop science and technology that will address the sensing of a material state at the microstructure level, precursor damage at the dislocation level, and fatigue-crack size population. Numerous academic papers have been published on detection of microstructure change in materials, but key areas such as phase changes, recrystallization, nonlinearity development, and other similar topics have not been pursued beyond a theoretical level; many of the reported experiments have been conducted in a controlled laboratory environment and are not easily translatable to vii

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components functioning in a real-world environment. Bridging this research-to-practice gap will be of paramount importance to the AFRL if it is to continue to develop the technology for sensing and assessing materials state. To address these issues, the AFRL asked the National Research Council to convene a workshop (see Appendix A). Following an initial planning meeting, the Materials State Awareness Workshop Organizing Panel developed a comprehensive agenda for the Workshop on Materials State Awareness, which brought together leaders in materials nondestructive evaluation from both industry and research, as well as government officials and other interested parties, on September 25-26, 2007 (see Appendix B). The workshop panelists and speakers (see Appendix C) were asked to give their personal perspectives on technological approaches to understanding materials state and also to describe potential challenges and advances in technology. This proceedings consists primarily of extended abstracts of the workshop speakers’ presentations; the abstracts, which reflect the speakers’ personal views, convey the nature and scope of the material presented at the workshop. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the members of the Materials State Awareness Workshop Organizing Panel for their hard work in preparing for and executing a very valuable workshop. I also thank the speakers, panelists, and participants who attended the workshop for their very important contributions. Finally, I acknowledge the contributions of National Research Council staff members Gary Fischman, Emily Ann Meyer, and Teri Thorowgood for their behind-the-scenes efforts in bringing this workshop together. Edgar S. Starke, Jr. Materials State Awareness Organizing Panel, Chair viii

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dianne Chong, Boeing Corporation, Boro Djordjevic, Materials Sensors and Technologies, Glenn Light, Southwest Research Institute, and Brajendra Mishra, Colorado School of Mines. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution. ix

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Contents INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS 1 Kumar V. Jata, Air Force Research Laboratory SESSION I: KEY ISSUES FOR MATERIALS STATE AWARENESS 3 Prognosis, John Venables, Strategic Analysis, Inc., and Leo Christodoulou, DARPA/Defense Science Office, 3 Application of Materials State Awareness to Airframe Structures—Key Issues, Donald D. Palmer, Jr., Boeing Phantom Works, 4 Key Issues in Materials State Awareness for Aviation Propulsion Systems, Robert Schafrik and Jeffrey Williams, GE Aviation, 5 SESSION II: WHAT IS MATERIALS STATE AWARENESS? 9 An Integrated View of Materials State Awareness, R. Bruce Thompson, Iowa State University, 9 Nondestructive Physical Property Measurements to Establish Materials State Awareness, David L. Olson, Colorado School of Mines, 10 Modeling and Sensing Mechanical Degradation in Metals and Composites, W.A. Curtin, Brown University, 17 Virtual Tests: Making the Most of Experimental Knowledge, Brian Cox, Teledyne Scientific, 17 xi

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SESSION III: WHAT SHOULD WE SENSE FOR MATERIALS STATE AWARNESS AND HOW SHOULD WE LOOK FOR IT? 19 Materials State Awareness: A Propulsion Perspective, Kevin Smith, Pratt & Whitney, 19 Integrated Structural Health and Life Management of Airframe Structures Dependent on Characterizing the State of the Material as a Function of Time in Service, J.P. Gallagher, Independent Consultant, 21 Materials Property Measurement Using Nondestructive Evaluation Methods at GE, Shridhar Nath, Tom Batzinger, Waseem Faidi, Jian Li, Ed Nieters, Harry Ringermacher, and Nilesh Tralshawla, GE Global Research; and Thadd Patton, GE Aviation, 21 Examples of Materials State Awareness Problems and Research Directions to Solve Them, S.I. Rokhlin, Ohio State University, 22 Issues and Ideas in Materials State Awareness for Aerospace Structural Joints, Thomas Farris, Purdue University, 23 Materials Corrosion Fundamentals, Prevention, and Detection, Matthew J. O’Keefe, Missouri Institute of Science and Technology, * 23 Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation Techniques and Applications: A Comprehensive Overview, Reza Zoughi, Missouri Institute of Science and Technology,* 26 We Find What We Seek, John C. Duke, Jr., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 29 SESSION IV: MATERIALS STATE AWARENESS APPLICATION ISSUES 31 Issues and Ideas in State Awareness for Realistic Materials and Structures, Douglas E. Adams, Purdue University, 31 Coupling Materials State Awareness with Structural Health Monitoring and Damage Prognosis, Charles R. Farrar, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 32 Statistical Issues Related to Materials State Awareness, William Q. Meeker, Iowa State University Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, 34 SESSION V: WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF MATERIALS STATE AWARENESS? 37 An Overview of Data Fusion Methods and Applications, R. Joseph Stanley, Missouri Institute of Science and Technology,* 37 Model-Based System Design and Signal Processing for Materials State Awareness, Wm. Garth Frazier, Miltec Corporation, 39 System State Awareness: An Integrated Perspective, Thomas Cruse, Vanderbilt University, Emeritus, 41 APPENDIXES A Materials State Awareness Workshop Statement of Task, 45 B Workshop Agenda and List of Attendees, 47 C Speaker and Panelist Biographies, 53 D Acronyms, 63 * The Missouri Institute of Science and Technology was formerly known as the University of Missouri-Rolla. xii