global community of the 21st century? What strategy, with several concrete steps, could be used to implement each of those actions?”28

In the resulting NAS report entitled “Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future,” the authors call for comprehensive and immediate action to address an increasing economic and national security threat to the United States: the impaired ability to grow and compete in a globalizing world for the scarce STEM professionals needed to ensure the capability for technological innovation.


Appendix A provides a clear mapping of NAVSEA’s intended actions to provide solutions to the NAS authors’ four recommendations with twenty supporting actions to implement them. NAVSEA embraces the comprehensive approach described in these actions. NAVSEA also recognizes that meeting the challenge actually has three human capital dimensions that must be integrated:

  • The sustainment and development of a STEM professional workforce;

  • Ensuring a diverse workforce that mines the best from many perspectives; and

  • Quantifying and measuring performance in achieving a diverse STEM workforce.

V.
The Problem—Balancing Perspectives

The problem can be viewed from three interrelated perspectives: strategic (national level), operational (Naval Enterprise level), and tactical (NAVSEA organizational).


At the strategic national level, the nation is faced with fierce competition for scarce STEM resources in a globalizing environment where the US is decreasingly competitive as the preeminent location to develop professionally. In fact, only 1 of 16 sets of

28

NAS report; Charge to the Committee by Senator Lamar Alexander and Senator Jeff Bingaman.



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global community of the 21st century? What strategy, with several concrete steps, could be used to implement each of those actions?”28 In the resulting NAS report entitled “Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future,” the authors call for comprehensive and immediate action to address an increasing economic and national security threat to the United States: the impaired ability to grow and compete in a globalizing world for the scarce STEM professionals needed to ensure the capability for technological innovation. Appendix A provides a clear mapping of NAVSEA’s intended actions to provide solutions to the NAS authors’ four recommendations with twenty supporting actions to implement them. NAVSEA embraces the comprehensive approach described in these actions. NAVSEA also recognizes that meeting the challenge actually has three human capital dimensions that must be integrated: • The sustainment and development of a STEM professional workforce; • Ensuring a diverse workforce that mines the best from many perspectives; and • Quantifying and measuring performance in achieving a diverse STEM workforce. V. The Problem – Balancing Perspectives The problem can be viewed from three interrelated perspectives: strategic (national level), operational (Naval Enterprise level), and tactical (NAVSEA organizational). At the strategic national level, the nation is faced with fierce competition for scarce STEM resources in a globalizing environment where the US is decreasingly competitive as the preeminent location to develop professionally. In fact, only 1 of 16 sets of NAS report; Charge to the Committee by Senator Lamar Alexander and Senator Jeff Bingaman. 28 3

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respondents in the NAS study indicated the US as the primary place for STEM development.29 At the Naval Enterprise level, comprising the entire DoN community, the Navy and Marine Corps must attract, develop, retain, and motivate these professionals to ensure our national security through technological innovation. At the NAVSEA organizational level, our work environment must provide the incentives, equal opportunity, and quality of life that mine diverse viewpoints and capabilities to provide the best possible capabilities to support our national security. NAVSEA further recognizes a multitude of stakeholders at each of these levels— each with sometimes complementary, but often differing priorities. While all view the problem through their unique lens, success will require the ability to communicate across and balance these perspectives. Stakeholders at the strategic level include the American public, students at all levels, industry, federal government agencies, and foreign nations. At the Naval Enterprise and NAVSEA organizational levels, the stakeholders include the Department of Defense (DOD), the DoN, NAVSEA, educational institutions, the engineering and scientific workforce, employers, educators, local and state governments, professional societies, labor unions, and others with a record of success in training, retraining and rewarding capable people.30 The initiative addresses: NAS Storm Report, p. ES-9 29 30 Bryan, L.A. “Trying Times For U.S. Engineers”, A Statement on behalf of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers – United States of America at the Pan Organizational Summit on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce, November 12, 2002 IEEE, p. 3 4

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1) The need for development of a NAVSEA/DOD oriented cadre of scientists and engineers through early and ongoing engagement in the educational process. 2) Establishing a clear link between the work force development and the Navy Diversity initiatives. 3) Pilot efforts with historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs)/minority institutions (MIs), to leverage existing and proven programs that bring previously untapped candidates into the STEM workforce. 4) Developing an implementation framework with incremental, but comprehensive budgets to move forward over a 10 year time frame to: • Concentrate upon a broad educational continuum; • Attend to DoN needs, but in an expandable DOD (ultimately interagency) construct; • Develop options to expose and expand interest in STEM through activities from summer camps to fellowships; and • Define possible foundations for cultural learning across organizations, teams, and individuals residing in diverse structures in the Navy and the broader community (e.g., interagency, industry, academia). Considerations Specifically, NAVSEA and similar organizations require a workforce that is at the vanguard of technological development and that draws upon the diversity that the changing American population and global community offer. As noted in the NAS Storm Report as well as in an additional NAS report referencing National Science Foundation study findings: 5

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“The demographics of the United States are changing. Women and minorities together make up 60 percent of the total workforce,14 but they are dramatically underrepresented in S&E. Women comprise 46 percent of the total labor force, but only 23 percent of the S&E labor force.15 African Americans and ethnic minorities constitute 24 percent of the total population but only 7 percent of the S&E labor force.16 This means the majority of Americans is [untapped] in S&E.” 31 From a broader community perspective, industry articulates a “formidable, five-part challenge: • How to assign responsibility for and share the cost of lifelong learning that will enhance the viability of engineering careers with continuous focus on performance, productivity and employability; • How to make professional careers in engineering more attractive to U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents at a time when more and more employers view engineering services as commodities to be purchased at the lowest possible cost, here or overseas; • How to address U.S. corporate needs for maintaining a positive worldwide competitive position while also maintaining a viable technical workforce for the security and economic vitality of the U.S.; • How to reconcile fundamental economic laws of supply and demand … ; and 31 Jackson, S.J., National Science Foundation, “Envisioning A 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry, and Government,” National Academies Press, 2003. Internal citations from: 15-National Science Foundation. Science and Engineering Indicators 2002 [p. 3-12]. Arlington, VA: NSF, 2002. Available online: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind02/start.htm 16-National Science Foundation. Science and Engineering Indicators 2002 [p. 3-13]. Arlington, VA: NSF, 2002. Available online: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind02/start.htm 6

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• How to minimize the unintended consequences of targeted government interventions.”32 NAVSEA also recognizes that acquiring its STEM workforce differs from the broader STEM community in two respects. First is NAVSEA’s need for security cleared personnel—a decreasing pool as more STEM professionals are drawn from other nations. Second, while many federal employees stay long past retirement eligibility, the simultaneous loss of large numbers would certainly impact NAVSEA’s capability to deliver world class products. For example, based on internal research, 60% of NAVSEA’s workforce could retire simultaneously.33 In fact, a rapid retirement of a large percentage of the workforce would exacerbate the national security challenge because training new accessions does not make up for lost experience. The latter challenge raises two issues: actual vulnerability and perceptions of vulnerability. For example, NAVSEA’s current vulnerability to large scale retirement results from previous cycles of concern—today's retirees represent a "professional boom" resulting from the Sputnik launch fears of inadequate STEM resources in the late 1950s that generated many government programs providing access to US universities and resources. In addition to these two challenges, NAVSEA’s situation is also impacted by limited hiring over the last 15 year period. Today, again, there is wide ranging concern across many communities that the need is real, immediate, and must be comprehensively addressed. NAVSEA shares this concern. Bryan, L.A. “Trying Times For U.S. Engineers”, A Statement on behalf of The Institute of Electrical and 32 Electronics Engineers – United States of America at the Pan Organizational Summit on the U.S. Science and Engineering Workforce, November 12, 2002 IEEE p. 6 Findings from Program Executive Office Submarine (PEO SUB) research, 2006. 33 7

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Therefore, NAVSEA’s initiative focuses on a ten year window to establish a comprehensive program of engagement, outreach, and resource development starting at “the roots”: the educational community from middle school to high school to undergraduate to graduate to the doctoral level. This approach would help implement many of the NAS Storm Report actions and results from recognition that: • 8th Graders today will become the future Navy Sailors who will join the Navy after high school graduation in 2012. • 8th Graders in FY07 (2006-2007) will be graduating college in 2016 and taking jobs in STEM fields. • 8th Graders today will become the future math and science teachers in 2016 at the elementary, middle school, and high school level. • 8th Graders today will become the future Naval Officers receiving commissions after graduation in 2016. • 8th Graders today will become the future college professors training future leaders in the STEM fields in 2020. Leveraging Points NAVSEA recognizes that there are many (individual) initiatives already underway throughout the Navy, the academic community, and industry, which can contribute to NAVSEA’s expansion of the NAS approach. With better coordination and resources, NAVSEA initiatives could be expanded to other agencies and institutionalized by Congress in pending House and Senate National Defense Education Acts. Examples of initiatives at NAVSEA are: • A collaborative interaction with HBCUs to initiate a workforce development effort emphasizing job articulation (Dimension), quality of life to retain the workforce (Retention), and a career development pathway (Ascension). • Engagement with MIs including groups oriented towards women and Hispanics. • Small business interactions to leverage federal government funding initiatives including Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. • Warfare centers and field command programs such as the Naval Underwater Center’s (NUWC’s) Upward Bound Program with Rhode Island College, Naval 8