Information and Communication Technology and Peacebuilding: Summary of a Workshop

July 2008

Carol Arenberg and Greg Pearson, Editors

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Information and Communication Technology and Peacebuilding: Summary of a Workshop July 2008 Carol Arenberg and Greg Pearson, Editors

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NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the National Academy of Engineering. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. This study was supported by Contract No. IOP-07-191 between the National Academy of Sciences and the United States Institute of Peace and by a grant from Google, Inc. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-12188-0 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-12188-4 Copies of this report are available online from the National Academies Press: http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America ii

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. http://www.nationalacademies.org iii

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STEERING COMMITTEE FOR NAE WORKSHOP ON THE USE OF INFORMATION and COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN PEACEBUILDING JOHN H. (JACK) GIBBONS, chair, Resource Strategies, The Plains, Virginia VINTON G. CERF, Google, Inc., Herndon, Virginia JANE HOLL LUTE, United Nations, New York, New York RAJ REDDY, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania PATRICIA POWERS THOMSON, U.S. Institute of Peace, Washington, D.C. Project Staff GREG PEARSON, Senior Program Officer, National Academy of Engineering JACQUELINE MARTIN, Senior Awards Assistant, National Academy of Engineering CAROL ARENBERG, Senior Editor, National Academy of Engineering ANTWUAN WALLACE, Christine Mirzayan Science & Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, National Academy of Engineering iv

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Preface On December 14, 2007, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) U.S. held one-day workshop (see agenda, Appendix A) to consider how information and communication technology (ICT) can contribute to peacebuilding. People representing a variety of organizations and backgrounds attended (see list of attendees, Appendix B). The workshop opened with an introductory talk on conflict in the 21st century, which was followed by two panels. The first panel examined successful cases of ICT use in peacebuilding; the second addressed the ICT-related challenges and opportunities faced by those working in zones of conflict. Designated respondents provided comment on each panel, and there was also general discussion. The meeting concluded with a plenary session on next steps and possible collaboration. This report, prepared by NAE staff, follows the same format as the workshop. The project was funded by the U.S. Institute of Peace with additional support provided by Google, Inc. The planning of the workshop was substantially aided by the volunteer services of the workshop steering committee. Jack Gibbons, chair Steering Committee for NAE Workshop on the Use of ICT in Peacebuilding v

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed, in draft form, by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies. The purpose of this independent review process is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the committee and NAE in making its published reports as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The reviewers’ comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this report: George Bugliarello, Polytechnic University Vint Cerf, Google, Inc. Deborah Estrin, University of California, Los Angeles Jack Gibbons, Resource Strategies Arthur K. Reilly, Cisco Systems, Inc. Colin Rule, eBay and PayPal Trish Thomson, U.S. Institute of Peace Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were neither asked to endorse the views expressed in the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its public release. The review was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology, who was appointed by NAE to ensure that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the editors and the NAE. In addition to the reviewers, the committee wishes to thank the project staff. Jacqueline Martin managed the committee’s logistical and administrative needs, making sure the workshop ran efficiently and smoothly. NAE senior editor Carol R. Arenberg wrote much of the summary. Senior program officer Greg Pearson managed the project from start to finish. vi

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Contents Overview 1 Key Issues, 1 Practitioner Needs, 2 Next Steps, 3 Conflict in the 21st Century 3 Drivers of Conflict, 4 Enablers of Conflict, 4 ICT in Peacebuilding, 5 Panel 1: ICT in the Cause of Peace 5 The Use of Mobile Phones in Election Monitoring, 6 GIS and Participatory 3-D Modeling in Land-Use Negotiation, 8 The Role of Civil Society and ICT in Peacebuilding, 12 Comments by Respondents, 14 Panel 2: In the Field: Challenges and Opportunities 20 Preventive and Crisis Diplomacy, 20 Strategic Gaming for Civil Resistance, 23 Peacekeeping and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, 25 Comments by Respondents, 27 Discussion about Next Steps 30 Final Comments 33 Appendixes A Workshop Agenda, 35 B Attendee List, 37 C Terms of Reference, 40 D Statement by Alan Kay, 42 E Backgrounder on International Conflict, 45 vii

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