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Preliminary Review of the Draft Science, Education, and Design Strategy for the Water and Environmental Research Systems (WATERS) Network Committee on the Review of the Water and Environmental Research Systems (WATERS) Network Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant number CBET-0715260. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS (WATERS) NETWORK GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville MARY JO BAEDECKER, U.S. Geological Survey, Scientist Emeritus, Reston, Virginia YU-PING CHIN, Ohio State University, Columbus GLEN T. DAIGGER, CH2M Hill, Englewood, Colorado TONY R. FOUNTAIN, University of California, San Diego TIMOTHY K. KRATZ, University of Wisconsin, Boulder Junction RICHARD G. LAWFORD, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), Winnipeg, Manitoba DANIEL P. LOUCKS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York CHARLES R. O’MELIA, Johns Hopkins University, Emeritus, Baltimore, Maryland STEPHEN POLASKY, University of Minnesota, St. Paul NANCY N. RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin THOMAS C. WINTER, U.S. Geological Survey, Scientist Emeritus, Denver, Colorado NRC STAFF STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director, Water Science and Technology Board DOROTHY K. WEIR, Study Director MICHAEL J. STOEVER, Senior Program Assistant v

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WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD CLAIRE WELTY, Chair, University of Maryland, Baltimore County JOAN EHRENFELD, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey SIMON GONZALEZ, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City CHARLES N. HAAS, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania JAMES M. HUGHES, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia THEODORE L. HULLAR, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York KIMBERLY L. JONES, Howard University, Washington, D.C. G. TRACY MEHAN III, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Arlington, Virginia JAMES K. MITCHELL, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill LEONARD SHABMAN, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. DONALD I. SIEGEL, Syracuse University, New York SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine HAME M. WATT, Independent Consultant, Washington, D.C. JAMES L. WESCOAT, JR., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GARRET P. WESTERHOFF, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, New York Staff STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director JEFFREY W. JACOBS, Scholar LAUREN E. ALEXANDER, Senior Staff Officer LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer WILLIAM S. LOGAN, Senior Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Associate ELLEN A. DE GUZMAN, Research Associate DOROTHY K. WEIR, Senior Program Associate MICHAEL STOEVER, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William P. Ball, Johns Hopkins University; Kenneth Bencala, U.S. Geological Survey; Richard Conway, Union Carbide Corporation (retired); Patricia A. Maurice, University of Notre Dame; William K. Michener, University of New Mexico; Leslie L. Shoemaker, Tetra Tech, Inc.; Donald I. Siegel, Syracuse University; and Shalini Vajjhala, Resources for the Future. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mary P. Anderson, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. vii

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Contents WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH SYSTEMS NETWORK 1 STUDY SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT 2 EVALUATION OF THE CURRENT SEDS DRAFT 5 • Science Questions, 5 • Observatories, 10 • Sensors, 11 • Cyberinfrastructure, 11 • Education and Outreach, 13 • Governance and Management, 14 SUMMARY 15 REFERENCES 17 ACRONYMS 21 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches for Committee on the Review of Water and Environmental Research Systems Network 23 B Guest Speakers and Panelists 27 ix

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