6
Engine Idle Reduction

INTRODUCTION

The stated 21CTP goal of the engine idle reduction activity is to promote the research, development, and deployment of technologies that substantially reduce energy consumption and exhaust emissions due to idling.

The objectives are as follows:

  • Establish an industry/government collaboration to promote the research, development, and deployment of cost-effective technologies for reducing fuel use and emissions due to idling of heavy-duty diesel engines.

  • Establish an educational program for truck and bus owners and operators to implement the most cost-effective enabling technologies and operational procedures to eliminate unnecessary idling.

  • Develop a mix of incentives and regulations to encourage trucks and buses to find other more fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly ways to provide for their power needs while at rest.

  • Facilitate the development of consistent electrical codes and standards that apply to both onboard and stationary electrification technologies.

  • Develop and demonstrate add-on idling-reduction equipment that meets driver cab comfort needs, has a payback time of 2 years or less, and produces fewer emissions of NOx and PM than a truck meeting 2010 emission standards, by 2009.

  • Develop a truck with a fully integrated idling-reduction system to reduce component duplication, weight and cost, by 2012.

  • Develop and demonstrate a viable fuel cell Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) system for on-road and off-road transportation applications in the 5-30-kilowatt (kW) range, capable of operating on hydrogen directly, or using a carbon-based fuel with a reformer.

According to the DOE, Class 7 and 8 trucks idle a significant portion of the time, accounting for the consumption of a billion gallons of diesel per year from overnight idling.1 To understand the potential to reduce the time spent in the idle mode, one needs to understand the importance of keeping the engine running. DOE indicates that a variety of reasons account for this activity:

  • To keep the cab or sleeper heated or cooled

  • To keep the fuel warm in winter

  • To keep the engine warm in the winter to permit easier startup

  • To provide power to operate electrical appliances such as microwaves and TV sets

  • To keep the batteries charged

  • Because the other drivers do it!

Most activity has been focused on nighttime idling, but as Table 6-1 shows, daytime idling can surpass the fuel use during nighttime idling.

In addition to the waste of fuel, idling is a significant source of emissions and has been identified as playing a substantial role in exposure to diesel particulates. Such exposure has been estimated to cause thousands of premature deaths (Lloyd and Cackette, 2001). In this case, daytime idling particularly has more impact on human exposure than nighttime idling. The example of a school bus idling, exposing children to elevated diesel particulates, led the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to regulate the time of idling for school buses. Problems with noise during idling, as well as the associated air pollution, have led to communities placing significant restrictions on operations of trucks at idle.

The concern to limit fuel use and reduce emissions during idling has provided a logical opportunity for DOE and the

1

Glen Keller, Linda Gaines, and Terry Levinson, U.S. Department of Energy, Center for Transportation Research, “Idle Reduction Technologies,” Presentation to the committee, Washington D.C., February 8, 2007, Slide 3.



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6 engine idle reduction iNTrodUcTioN According to the DOE, Class 7 and 8 trucks idle a signifi- cant portion of the time, accounting for the consumption of a The stated 21CTP goal of the engine idle reduction activity billion gallons of diesel per year from overnight idling.1 To is to promote the research, development, and deployment of understand the potential to reduce the time spent in the idle technologies that substantially reduce energy consumption mode, one needs to understand the importance of keeping and exhaust emissions due to idling. the engine running. DOE indicates that a variety of reasons The objectives are as follows: account for this activity: • Establish an industry/government collaboration to • To keep the cab or sleeper heated or cooled promote the research, development, and deployment • To keep the fuel warm in winter of cost-effective technologies for reducing fuel use and • To keep the engine warm in the winter to permit easier emissions due to idling of heavy-duty diesel engines. startup • Establish an educational program for truck and bus • To provide power to operate electrical appliances such owners and operators to implement the most cost- as microwaves and TV sets effective enabling technologies and operational pro- • To keep the batteries charged cedures to eliminate unnecessary idling. • Because the other drivers do it! • Develop a mix of incentives and regulations to encour- age trucks and buses to find other more fuel-efficient Most activity has been focused on nighttime idling, but and environmentally friendly ways to provide for their as Table 6-1 shows, daytime idling can surpass the fuel use power needs while at rest. during nighttime idling. • Facilitate the development of consistent electrical In addition to the waste of fuel, idling is a significant codes and standards that apply to both onboard and source of emissions and has been identified as playing a sub- stationary electrification technologies. stantial role in exposure to diesel particulates. Such exposure • Develop and demonstrate add-on idling-reduction has been estimated to cause thousands of premature deaths equipment that meets driver cab comfort needs, has a (Lloyd and Cackette, 2001). In this case, daytime idling payback time of 2 years or less, and produces fewer particularly has more impact on human exposure than night- emissions of NOx and PM than a truck meeting 2010 time idling. The example of a school bus idling, exposing emission standards, by 2009. children to elevated diesel particulates, led the California Air • Develop a truck with a fully integrated idling-reduction Resources Board (CARB) to regulate the time of idling for system to reduce component duplication, weight and school buses. Problems with noise during idling, as well as cost, by 2012. the associated air pollution, have led to communities placing • Develop and demonstrate a viable fuel cell Auxiliary significant restrictions on operations of trucks at idle. Power Unit (APU) system for on-road and off-road The concern to limit fuel use and reduce emissions during transportation applications in the 5-30-kilowatt (kW) idling has provided a logical opportunity for DOE and the range, capable of operating on hydrogen directly, or using a carbon-based fuel with a reformer. 1Glen Keller, Linda Gaines, and Terry Levinson, U.S. Department of Energy, Center for Transportation Research, “Idle Reduction Technolo- gies,” Presentation to the committee, Washington D.C., February 8, 2007, Slide 3. 

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 ENGINE IdLE REdUCTION TABLE 6-1 Fuel Use During Idling as Percentage of Total Fuel Use (million gallons per year) Gasoline Diesel Total Overnight Idling 0 700 700 Workday Idling 1,400 1,000 2,500 (excluding vocational power take-off use) Total Long-Duration Idling Fuel Use 1,400 1,700 3,200 Total Fuel Use for Commercial Trucks 14,000 23,000 37,000 Idling Percentage to Total Use by Fuel Type 10% 7% 9% SOURCE: Glen Keller, Linda Gaines, and Terry Levinson, U.S. Department of Energy, Center for Transportation Research, Idle Reduction Technologies,” Presentation to the committee, Washington D.C., February 8, 2007, Slide 3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to work together on nologies, including initial cost, driver education and recep- reducing the time vehicles spend at idle. tiveness, reliability, and maintenance considerations. AVTA sponsored four idle reduction demonstration projects, each Finding 6-1. Idle reduction is one of the most effective consisting of a team of a truck fleet, truck manufacturer, and ways to reduce pollutant emissions (especially locally) and idle-reduction technology manufacturer: improve fuel economy. As a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the authority for this effort now rests with EPA • Engine-Off Cab Cooling and Heating. Schneider and DOT. Several important lines of research are carried National Inc. led a project to demonstrate engine-off on in the 21CTP. In addition, the EPA SmartWay Transport cab cooling and heating. Partnership voluntary program is effective at promoting the • Engine-Off Accessory Power. Caterpillar Inc. is lead- use of electrified parking spaces. The 21CTP, in cooperation ing a project to demonstrate Caterpillar’s MorElectric with several major shippers, has demonstrated a number of technology, which applies electrically driven acces- cost-effective technologies (such as fuel-fired cab heaters sories for cab comfort during engine-off stops and and coolers) that are being used by existing fleets. (One fleet for reducing fuel consumption during on-highway is installing more than 6,000 heaters, and another is install- operation. ing more than 7,000.) One trucking company reported that • Combined Cab Heating and Cooling. Espar is leading diesel-fired heaters provided 2.4 percent fuel savings and a a project to demonstrate combined cab heating and payback in less than 2 years at $2.40 per gallon. cooling systems. One system combines an air condi- tioner with a bunk heater. Another system combines Recommendation 6-1. The 21CTP should continue to an auxiliary power unit—which provides heating, support R&D for the technologies that reduce idle time cooling, and accessory power—with a bunk heater. and address the remaining technical challenges (including • Factory-Installed Idle Reduction System for Sleeper California emission requirements, completely integrated Trucks. International Truck and Engine Corporation is APU/HVAC systems, and creep devices). leading a project to develop and integrate onboard idle- reduction technology into heavy-duty sleeper trucks as an original-manufacturer, factory-installed equipment assessmeNT oF iNdiVidUal Goals option. The idle-reduction system consists of an auxil- iary power unit, electric air conditioner, cab and engine Goal 1. establish an industry/Government collaboration preheater, and improved cab insulation. In 2006, five to Promote the research, development, and deployment trucks equipped with the system began field evaluation of cost-effective Technologies for reducing Fuel Use and in fleets. The evaluation will conclude in 2007. In addi- emissions due to idling of heavy-duty diesel engines tion, production orders for the factory-built system—in DOE has for at least a decade carried out cooperative hot-climate and cold-climate versions—are already research and development to characterize and address the being delivered to customers. reduction of fuel use and emissions during idling of heavy- duty engines. In 2002 it began a study of diesel truck engine DOE took a leadership role in conducting meetings with idle-reduction technologies, called the Advanced Vehicle the industry and a significant report on time idling and its Testing Activity (AVTA).2 The study identified several consequences was released in 2000, and continued to work barriers to widespread use of existing idle-reduction tech- closely with industry to identify and demonstrate potential idle-reduction technologies as discussed later in the report. Other federal agencies involved with these programs 2Information is available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/ are the EPA, Department of Transportation (DOT), and idle_reduction_research.html.

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 REVIEW OF THE ST CENTURY TRUCK PARTNERSHIP Finding 6-3. DOE has built an effective outreach instru- Department of Defense (DOD). Results of the cooperative demonstration projects are used to educate the truck drivers ment in its monthly publication, “The National Idling to reduce idling. The EPA SmartWay Transport Partnership is Reduction News.” This publication and education through a highly successful example of government-industry partner- conferences and other agencies such as the EPA provides ship and is discussed later in this chapter. stakeholders with significant information and guidelines for idle reduction. Finding 6-2. An effective government-industry cooperative Recommendation 6-3. DOE should continue its current program has been established to examine idle-reduction technologies, which have been successfully employed for successful education and outreach program as currently nighttime truck operation. operated. Recommendation 6-2. The success of the nighttime anti- Goal 3. develop a mix of incentives and regulations idling measure and deployment should be the basis for to encourage Trucks and Buses to Find other more expanding to technologies that can be applied for daytime Fuel-efficient and environmentally Friendly Ways to operation, which will then lead to greater fuel savings than Provide for their Power Needs at rest nighttime operation. This section addresses the various mechanisms being followed to address idle reduction—namely a market Goal 2. establish an educational Program for Truck mechanism for incentives and the regulatory approach being and Bus owners and operators to implement enabling implemented by various governmental agencies at the local, Technologies and operational Procedures to eliminate state, and national levels. Unnecessary idling One of the most successful programs appears to be the A very successful educational program was created EPA SmartWay Transport Partnership, which is a “collab- following the DOE Conference on National Idling Reduc- orative effort between EPA and industry designed to create a demand for cleaner, more fuel efficient transportation.”4 tion Planning held in May 2004 in Albany, New York: see the monthly publication “National Idling Reduction Network This partnership includes idle reduction as part of its overall News.”3 This publication has a primary recipient list of about program objectives. EPA has provided $5 million in grants 1,500 and contains information on the following: for 84 projects nationally to fund a variety of Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) and APUs. The advent of new regula- • Solicitation for funding and awards tions such as the CARB regulations for PM reduction on • Presentations from meetings APUs installed on 2007 heavy-duty trucks may require R&D • Upcoming meetings programs funded by DOE to develop additional technologies, • Awards from solicitations which may be deployed in other states. —Regulating news According to the EPA, there is a patchwork of anti-idling —Reports of interest regulations across the United States, which is a disincentive —Manufacturers news to the industry to invest control equipment to reduce idling —News about ports emissions. To address this issue, EPA developed a “model —Hybrid commercial vehicles idle reduction” regulation, which could be applied nationally. —Truck stop electrification This was a follow-up to a series of stakeholders meetings. It —Other news will be important for EPA to follow up on this initiative if it is to be successful. Argonne National Laboratory prepares the monthly EPA has also provided a mechanism for truckers to secure document for the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and loans for installing devices such as APUs to reduce emis- Renewable Energy (EERE). Review of a sample document sions and improve fuel economy. This has proven to be a indicates that this is an effective tool to educate stakeholders successful program. on the various aspects of idle reduction and the opportuni- Finding 6-4. Progress on the incentive part of this goal has ties for funding at the federal, state, and local levels. The Clean Cities Program and events held by this organization been excellent as evidenced by the SmartWay Transport is another effective way of distributing the message on the Partnership between EPA and industry. The patchwork of benefits of idle reduction. anti-idling regulations nationally is an impediment to broader use of anti-idling measures. 4Mitchell Greenberg, EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality, “EPA SmartWay Transport Program: Overcoming Technology Deployment 3Available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/idling_ Challenges,” Presentation to the committee, Washington, D.C., March 28, news/apr07_network_news.pdf. 2007.

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 ENGINE IdLE REdUCTION Recommendation 6-4. EPA should renew its efforts to In contrast, Schneider has installed over 6,000 heaters and promulgate national anti-idling regulations, and DOE should expects to have 80 percent of its fleet retrofitted by winter review whether additional R&D is needed to implement 2007/2008. those regulations. In separate fleet tests with Wal-Mart International and Espar utilizing combined diesel heating and electric cool- ing resulted in Wal-Mart retrofitting its entire fleet with Tri Goal 4. Facilitate the development of consistent Pac units (these provide heating, cooling, and accessory electrical codes and standards That apply to Both power). onboard and stationary electrification Technologies Finding 6-6. The DOE-sponsored demonstrations with two EPA apparently passed the electrical codes and standards program on to industry in 2005 and does not have any type major trucking fleets resulted in deployment of several idle- of ongoing summary of progress. The program was divided reduction devices. Greater success was achieved with cab into two working groups: (1) truck codes and (2) ground heating than with cab cooling. It appears that only one device codes using 120-volt power. The truck codes have been set met the goal of less than 2-year payback. It is unclear whether up with two 20-amp ground-fault interrupter circuits (GFIC) the emissions requirement of the goal was met. protectors, and a draft SAE standard has been approved Recommendation 6-6. Given that funding and responsibility by the SAE Truck and Bus Electronics Committee. A full committee vote was due in the summer of 2007 with antici- for idle-reduction technologies was redirected in the Energy pated release of the new standard by September 2007. The Policy Act of 2005 to EPA and DOT, there is no requirement committee obtained a draft copy of the new standard (J2698 for DOE to pursue this area. However, given the progress to SAE, September 2004). date and potential attractive returns on investment, it would Other activities in this area include plug-in refrigeration be desirable for DOE, EPA, and DOT to continue to advance units utilizing 460V/30 amp links intended to start with port this aspect of fuel reduction and environmental mitigation. containers through the remainder of the shipping infrastruc- ture. This is not part of the SAE standard but is being incor- Goal 6. Produce by 2012 a Truck with a Fully integrated porated into the National Electric Code (NEC) (Article 26). idling-reduction system to reduce component This was approved in the NEC committee and is expected to duplication, Weight, and cost be approved the NEC convention in July 2007. The working group is still addressing implementation issues across differ- The major effort under the goal to produce by 2012 a ent manufacturers. New activities include an electrification fully integrated idling-reduction system is the DOE program demonstration site in New York State and a July 19, 2007, with a team headed by Caterpillar to create the More Elec- tric Truck system.6 Other industrial participants included ribbon cutting ceremony in Portland, Oregon, for 160 truck electrified parking locations. Kenworth, Emerson, SR Drives, and EMP. The program was designed to reduce both emissions and fuel consumption by the use of onboard and off-board electricity. Specifically, the Goal 5. develop and demonstrate add-on More Electric Truck was designed to: idling-reduction equipment That meets driver cab comfort Needs, has a Payback Time of 2 Years or less, • Reduce parasitic losses and Produces Fewer emissions of Nox and Pm Than a • Reduce radiator heat load Truck meeting 2010 emission standards By 2009 • Improve cooling system performance, air systems DOE presented to the committee information which management and advanced power management showed that it had supported two fleet validations of cab comfort devices that could be added to existing fleets of These improvements were designed to facilitate more vehicles.5 The study with Schneider National tested both cab effective idle reduction applications. International and Cox heating and cooling appliances. The cab heaters provided joined DOE and Caterpillar in some real world fleet tests. 2.4 percent fuel savings and less than 2-year payback. Two Some salient results (provided by the DOE, February 2007) cooling systems were tested—one based on a phase-change were that: and the other on battery power. These were tested in 19 and 70 trucks, respectively, and both reduced idling time by • Fuel savings were up to 2 percent on road plus 6 per- 3 percent. However, it was concluded that the cooling sys- cent from idle reduction tems need further work before they can be widely deployed. 5Glen 6Glen Keller, Linda Gaines, and Terry Levinson, U.S. Department of Keller, Linda Gaines, and Terry Levinson, U.S. Department of Energy, Center for Transportation Research, “Idle Reduction Technolo- Energy, Center for Transportation Research, 2007, Idle Reduction Technolo- gies,” Presentation to the committee, Washington, D.C., February 8, 2007, gies,” Presentation to the committee, Washington, D.C., February 8, 2007, Slide 14. Slide 13.

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 REVIEW OF THE ST CENTURY TRUCK PARTNERSHIP Goal 7. develop and demonstrate Viable Fuel cell aPU • The HVAC unit can be driven by the APU during rest systems for military and other Users, in the 5-30 kW periods range, capable of operating on JP-8 fuel with 35-Percent • The truck can be plugged into shore-power electrical efficiency (Based on the Fuel’s heating Value) by 2015 service, where fuel consumption to serve these loads can be cut significantly. Based on the information provided by DOE in presenta- tions, work under this goal is being performed by the DOD. Another overall result was that the More Electric Trucks The DOD has two fuel cell APU programs under way: idled less than control vehicles (12.8 versus 26.5 percent) the U.S. Army CERDEC (Communications-Electronics resulting in fuel savings. Research, Development, and Engineering Center) fuel cell The program has achieved some significant results but APU programs focus on diesel and JP-8 fuel reforming additional work is anticipated to further reduce fuel con- coupled with fuel cells in the 500 W to 5 kW auxiliary sumption. Example areas are mild hybrid storage using power range. The U.S. Army TARDEC (Tank Automotive nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries; advanced cooling Research, Development and Engineering Center) fuel cell system components (electric thermostat valve and cooling programs focus on combat vehicles and APUs in the range fan, high efficiency after cooler); and decoupling the air > 5 kW. compressor from the engine. The DOD is supporting a variety of companies with vari- ous fuel reformers and fuel cells (solid oxide [SOFC] and Finding 6-7. The More Electric Truck program demon- polymer electrolyte membrane [PEM]). These studies are strated an integrated system to reduce idling emissions and ongoing, and definitive results toward meeting goal 7 are fuel consumption. The test program showed significant prog- not available. ress toward achieving the objectives of Goal 2 in Chapter 5 (“Develop and demonstrate technologies that reduce essen- Finding 6-8. The work on fuel cell APU is being carried out tial auxiliary loads by 50 percent, from the current 20 hp to by the DOD and a number of contractors are being supported. 10 hp, for class 8 tractor-trailers”) and Goal 6 (“Produce by There is no evidence that goal 7 has been met at this time. 2012 a truck with a fully integrated idling-reduction system to reduce component duplication, weight, and cost”). By Recommendation 6-8. The DOE’s 21CTP should continue demonstrating 1 to 2 percent estimated reduction in fuel use to monitor and interact with the DOD program. As DOD including significant truck idling reductions. According to reaches its goals, DOE should explore with major truck DOE, this translates into an overall annual fuel savings for operators the possibility of bringing appropriate fuel cell the U.S. fleet of 710 to 824 million gallons of diesel fuel APU technologies into commercial use. (about $2 billion per year at $2.75 per gallon). reFereNces Recommendation 6-7. Given the potential of this program to save fuel, the committee recommends that the 21CTP Lloyd, Alan, and Thomas A. Cackette. 2001. Diesel Engines: Environmental continue the R&D of the identified system components Impact and Control. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Associa- that will provide additional improvements in idle reduction tion 51:809-847. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers International). 2004. Primary Single and parasitic losses related to engine components that are Phase Nominal 120 VAC Wiring Distribution Assembly Design. Truck more efficient and provide better control of energy use. The and Bus Standard No. J2698. Washington, D.C. September. program should focus also on the cost-effectiveness of the technologies.