F-1

 

Technical Specifications for Production and Near-Production Vehicle Batteries,

 

114

FIGURES

1-1

 

Energy consumption of heavy trucks (more than 10,000 lb GVWR) compared with that of light trucks and passenger vehicles, 1970-2003,

 

10

1-2

 

Trends in annual miles driven by three different classes of vehicle: heavy trucks, light trucks, and passenger vehicles, 1966-2005,

 

10

1-3

 

For-hire transportation services compared with other sectors of the transportation industry,

 

10

1-4

 

Fuel economy (miles per gallon) of passenger vehicles, light trucks, and heavy-duty trucks (more than 10,000 lb), 1973-2005,

 

11

1-5

 

Energy use by the U.S. transportation sector, 1949-2005,

 

11

1-6

 

U.S. petroleum production and net imports, 1949-2005 (thousands of barrels per year),

 

11

1-7

 

Historical trend in exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles, by model year,

 

11

1-8

 

Historical trend in federal emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines, by model year,

 

11

1-9

 

Appropriations to the 21CTP, FY 2003-2007 (shown as “Heavy Duty”) represent a declining proportion of the FCVT Program,

 

17

2-1

 

Interrelationships among 21CTP participants,

 

19

2-2

 

DOE goal setting process,

 

20

2-3

 

Government agency relationships,

 

21

2-4

 

DOE project management and innovation process,

 

24

2-5

 

Proposed table of project priorities,

 

25

3-1

 

Energy audit of a typical Class 8 tractor-trailer combination on a level road at a constant speed of 65 mph and a GVW of 80,000 lbs,

 

27

3-2

 

Heavy truck engine technology roadmap showing the effects of emission regulations on thermal efficiency,

 

35

3-3

 

DDC Series 60 12.7L brake-specific fuel consumption map,

 

36

3-4

 

Thirteen-mode steady-state emission test conditions,

 

37

3-5

 

Illustration of the operating range for LTC combustion,

 

42

3-6

 

Surface transportation fuel use,

 

44

3-7

 

Overall schedule, CRC ACES study,

 

54

3-8

 

Project organization, CRC ACES study,

 

54

4-1

 

Network chart for heavy hybrid propulsion,

 

58

7-1

 

Deaths due to large-truck accidents,

 

90

7-2

 

Large-truck and bus fatality rate (per 100 million total vehicle miles traveled),

 

90

D-1

 

Historical trend in emission standards for light-duty vehicles,

 

108

D-2

 

Historical trend in emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines,

 

108



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