We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAE Program Report and The Bridge.

The Einstein Society

In recognition of members and friends who have made cumulative lifetime contributions of $100,000 or more to the National Academies.


John Abelson

Bruce and Betty Alberts

Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson

John and Lise Armstrong

Richard C. and Rita Atkinson

Norman R. Augustine

William F. Ballhaus, Sr.

Craig and Barbara Barrett

Jordan and Rhoda Baruch

Warren L. Batts

Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr.

Kenneth E. Behring

C. Gordon Bell

Elwyn and Jennifer Berlekamp

Diane and Norman Bernstein

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Harry E. Bovay, Jr.

David G. Bradley

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Tobie and Dan Fink

George and Ann Fisher

Harold K. and Betty A. Forsen

William L. and Mary Kay Friend

Eugene Garfield, Ph.D.

William H. Gates III

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David Grainger

Jerome H. and Barbara N. Grossman

Corbin Gwaltney

Margaret A. Hamburg and Peter F. Brown

William M. Haney III

Michael and Sheila Held

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Yuet W. Kan

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Richard and Ronay Menschel

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Ann and Michael Ramage

Simon Ramo

Carol and David Richards

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Henry M. Rowan

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George Rowe

Jack W. and Valerie Rowe

Dolores H. Russ*

William J. Rutter

Stephen and Anne Ryan

Jillian Sackler

Henry and Susan Samueli

Bernard G. and Rhoda Sarnat

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Sara Lee and Axel Schupf

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2007 PRIVATE CONTRIBUTIONS We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAE Program Report and The Bridge. The Einstein Society In recognition of members and friends who have made cumulative lifetime contributions of $100,000 or more to the National Academies. Anonymous William T. Golden* Gerda K. Nelson John Abelson Corey S. Goodman Ralph S. O'Connor Bruce and Betty Alberts Bernard M. Gordon Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson David Grainger Kenneth H. Olsen John and Lise Armstrong Jerome H. and Barbara N. Grossman Doris Pankow Richard C. and Rita Atkinson Corbin Gwaltney Jack S. Parker Norman R. Augustine Margaret A. Hamburg and Peter F. Shela and Kumar Patel William F. Ballhaus, Sr. Brown Percy Pollard Craig and Barbara Barrett William M. Haney III Robert A. Pritzker Jordan and Rhoda Baruch Michael and Sheila Held Dr. and Mrs. Allen E. Puckett Warren L. Batts Jane Hirsh Ann and Michael Ramage Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr. M. Blakeman Ingle Simon Ramo Kenneth E. Behring Robert L. and Anne K. James Carol and David Richards C. Gordon Bell Anita K. Jones Anne and Walt Robb Elwyn and Jennifer Berlekamp Thomas V. Jones Henry M. Rowan Diane and Norman Bernstein Trevor O. Jones Mrs. Joseph E. Rowe Mrs. Elkan R. Blout Kenneth A. Jonsson George Rowe Harry E. Bovay, Jr. Yuet W. Kan Jack W. and Valerie Rowe David G. Bradley Fred Kavli Dolores H. Russ* Donald L. Bren Cindy and Jeong Kim William J. Rutter Sydney Brenner Mrs. Olga Kirchmayer Stephen and Anne Ryan Fletcher and Peg Byrom Frederick A. Klingenstein Jillian Sackler James McConnell Clark Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.* Henry and Susan Samueli Dale and Jeanne Compton William W. Lang Bernard G. and Rhoda Sarnat Roman W. DeSanctis Gerald and Doris Laubach Wendy and Eric Schmidt Robert W. Deutsch Whitney and Betty MacMillan Sara Lee and Axel Schupf George and Maggie Eads William W. McGuire Shep and Carol Ruth Shepherd Richard Evans Burton and DeeDee McMurtry Melvin I. Simon Harvey V. Fineberg and Mary E. Richard and Ronay Menschel Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. Wilson Mrs. G. William Miller Charlotte and Morry Tanenbaum Tobie and Dan Fink Dane and Mary Louise Miller Ted Turner George and Ann Fisher George and Cynthia Mitchell Leslie L. Vadasz Harold K. and Betty A. Forsen Ambrose K. Monell Roy and Diana Vagelos William L. and Mary Kay Friend Gordon and Betty Moore John C. Whitehead Eugene Garfield, Ph.D. Joe and Glenna Moore Wm. A. Wulf William H. Gates III David and Lindsay Morgenthaler Alejandro Zaffaroni T. H. Geballe Richard M. Morrow Nan and Chuck Geschke Philip Needleman * Recently Deceased 24

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The Elkan Blout Society of the National Academy of Sciences In recognition of members of the National Academy of Sciences and individuals who have made cumulative lifetime contributions between $20,000 and $99,999. Andreas Acrivos Emanuel Epstein Dominick P. Purpura Bishnu S. Atal William K. Estes Roy Radner John D. Baldeschwieler Richard L. Garwin Alexander Rich William J. Baumol George Gloeckler Frederic M. Richards Paul Berg David V. Goeddel Paul R. Schimmel R. Stephen Berry William E. Gordon Rudi Schmid* Floyd E. Bloom James N. Gray Eric M. Shooter Lewis M. Branscomb Thomas Kailath Robert Louis Sinsheimer Daniel Branton A. Dale Kaiser H. Guyford Stever Purnell W. Choppin Samuel Karlin Edward C. Stone Ralph J. Cicerone James S. Langer Lubert Stryer Morrel H. Cohen Johanna M. H. Levelt Sengers Martha Vaughan Stirling A. Colgate Kenneth G. McKay Andrew J. Viterbi Ellis B. Cowling Jane Menken Irving L. Weissman Stephen H. Crandall Mr. G. Lewis Meyer John Archibald Wheeler* James F. Crow John L. Moll Carl E. Wieman Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Arno G. Motulsky Torsten N. Wiesel Paul M. Doty Norman F. Ness Jean D. Wilson Mildred S. Dresselhaus John T. Potts, Jr. Charles Yanofsky Ernest L. Eliel Frank Press The IOM Society of the Institute of Medicine In recognition of members of the Institute of Medicine and individuals who have made cumulative lifetime contributions between $20,000 and $99,999. Drew E. Altman Bradford H. Gray Sheila A. Ryan John R. Ball Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Charles A. Sanders Jack D. Barchas Margaret E. Mahoney Leonard D. Schaeffer Paul Berg Arno G. Motulsky Rudi Schmid* Floyd E. Bloom Van C. Mow Kenneth I. Shine Lewis M. Branscomb Mary O. Mundinger Eric M. Shooter Robert L. Brent Woodrow A. Myers, Jr. Robert Louis Sinsheimer Roger J. Bulger Robert M. Nerem Rosemary A. Stevens Purnell W. Choppin Gilbert S. Omenn Samuel O. Thier Mary Sue Coleman Edward E. Penhoet Robert E. Tranquada Colleen Conway-Welch Daniel W. Pettengill Gail L. Warden James F. Crow John T. Potts, Jr. Irving L. Weissman Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Dominick P. Purpura Torsten N. Wiesel William H. Danforth Alexander Rich C. Kern Wildenthal Worth B. Daniels, Jr. William C. Richardson Jean D. Wilson Richard L. Garwin Henry W. Riecken Tadataka Yamada * Recently Deceased 25

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The Presidents’ Circle In recognition of donors from the private sector who contributed in 2007 to help promote greater awareness of science, technology, and medicine in our society and a better understanding of the work of the National Academies. Jack R. Anderson Michael T. Clegg William F. Kieschnick Neil R. Rolde Barbara M. Barrett W. Dale Compton William I. Koch Stephen J. Ryan Craig R. Barrett Nancy E. Conrad Jill Howell Kramer Harvey S. Sadow Thomas D. Barrow Charles R. Denham Gerald D. Laubach Maxine L. Savitz Ernest A. Bates Ralph C. Derrickson Robert H. Malott Barbara A. Schaal Warren L. Batts Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Davis Masten Sara Lee Schupf Donald R. Beall Harvey V. Fineberg John F. McDonnell H. R. Shepherd Berkley Bedell William L. Friend Burton J. McMurtry Susan E. Siegel Diane Bernstein Raymond E. Galvin Charles H. McTier Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. Jo Ivey Boufford Eugene Garfield George P. Mitchell Judy Swanson E. Cabell Brand Jack M. Gill Joe F. Moore Charles M. Vest John I. Brauman Ronald L. Graham Darla Mueller Robert H. Waterman George Bugliarello Jerome H. Grossman Patricia S. Nettleship Susan E. Whitehead Malin Burnham Norman Hackerman* Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Margaret S. Wilson Louis W. Cabot Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. Jack S. Parker Wm. A. Wulf Wiley N. Caldwell Jane Hirsh Frank Press Carole S. Young M. Blouke Carus M. Blakeman Ingle Peter H. Raven James F. Young Ralph J. Cicerone Christopher Ireland John S. Reed James McConnell Clark Scott A. Jones Charles W. Robinson The Heritage Society In recognition of members and friends who have contributed to the future of the National Academies through life income, bequest, and other estate and planned gifts. Andreas Acrivos Ernest L. Eliel Arno G. Motulsky James F. Roth Gene M. Amdahl Gerard W. Elverum, Jr. Van C. Mow Sheila A. Ryan John and Lise Armstrong Emanuel Epstein Guido Munch Myriam P. Sarachik Norman R. Augustine William K. Estes Mary O. Mundinger Paul R. Schimmel Stanley Baum Richard Evans Gerda K. Nelson Stuart F. Schlossman Stephen D. Bechtel, Jr. Robert C. Forney Norman F. Ness Rudi Schmid* Clyde J. Behney Paul H. Gilbert Ronald P. Nordgren Kenneth I. Shine Paul Berg Martin E. Glicksman Gilbert S. Omenn Robert Louis Sinsheimer Franklin H. Blecher George Gloeckler Dr. and Mrs. Bradford Dale F. Stein Daniel Branton Michael and Sheila Held Parkinson John A. Swets Robert and Lillian Brent Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Zack T. Pate Esther S. Takeuchi Morrel H. Cohen Anita K. Jones Daniel W. Pettengill Paul Talalay Colleen Conway-Welch Jerome Kagan Frank and Billie Press Ivan M. Viest Ellis B. Cowling Samuel Karlin Simon Ramo Willis H. Ware Barbara J. Culliton John W. Landis Allen F. Rhodes* Robert H. Wertheim Ruth M. Davis William W. Lang Alexander Rich John Archibald Wheeler* Robert A. Derzon Norma M. Lang Frederic M. Richards Wm. A. Wulf Peter N. Devreotes Jane Menken Henry W. Riecken Charles Yanofsky Paul M. Doty G. Lewis and Ingrid Meyer Richard J. and Bonnie B. Michael Zubkoff Mildred S. Dresselhaus Gordon and Betty Moore Robbins * Recently Deceased 26

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Catalyst Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed $10,000 or more to the National Academies in 2007. Bruce M. Alberts Norman Bernstein Fred Kavli Philip and Sima Needleman Drew E. Altman Ralph J. and Carol M. Cicerone William I. Koch Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Rose-Marie and Jack R. James McConnell Clark Jill Howell Kramer Jack S. Parker Anderson Harvey V. Fineberg and Mary Davis Masten John S. Reed Anonymous Wilson John F. McDonnell Stephen J. and Ann Ryan Bishnu S. Atal Jack M. Gill Burton J. and Dee Dee Leonard D. Schaeffer Richard C. Atkinson William T. Golden* McMurtry Sara Lee and Axel Schupf Donald R. Beall Barbara Grossman Charles H. McTier Susan E. Siegel C. Gordon Bell Jerome H. Grossman* Gordon E. Moore Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. Diane Bernstein Christopher Ireland Joe F. and Glenna Moore John C. Whitehead Rosette Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed between $5,000 and $9,999 to the National Academies in 2007. Thomas D. Barrow Stirling A. Colgate Blake Ingle Neil R. Rolde Ernest A. Bates James F. Crow Scott A. Jones Harvey S. Sadow Warren L. Batts Ken and Bonnie Davis Thomas Kailath Rudi Schmid* William J. Baumol Charles R. Denham William F. Kieschnick Edward C. Stone Berkley Bedell Ralph C. Derrickson Gerald D. and Doris Laubach Judy Swanson Elwyn R. and Jennifer Charles W. Duncan, Jr. Frank W. Luerssen Clara J. Szekely Berlekamp Samuel C. Florman J. Michael McGinnis Willis H. Ware E. Cabell Brand Raymond E. Galvin Ariadna Miller Robert H. Waterman Malin Burnham Eugene Garfield Ronald P. Nordgren Susan E. Whitehead Louis W. Cabot M. M. Green Ralph S. O’Connor Margaret S. Wilson Wiley N. Caldwell Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. Simon Ramo Tadataka Yamada M. Blouke Carus Jane Hirsh Charles W. Robinson Challenge Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed between $2,500 and $4,999 to the National Academies in 2007. Dyanne D. Affonso Worth B. Daniels, Jr. Robert M. Nerem H. Guyford Stever John R. Ball Robert A. Derzon Patricia S. Nettleship Lubert Stryer David R. Challoner James R. Gavin III Masayasu Nomura Patrick Suppes Purnell W. Choppin Mr. and Mrs. John Goldman Roy Radner Johannes and Julia Weertman Nancy E. Conrad Maureen M. Henderson Ronald L. Rivest Torsten N. Wiesel Ellis B. Cowling John and Wilma Kassakian Steven B. Sample Charles Yanofsky Stephen H. Crandall Jay K. Kochi Charles A. Sanders Warren M. Zapol Pedro M. Cuatrecasas Charlotte V. Kuh G. William Skinner Paul Zofnass and Renee Ring William H. Danforth Robert H. Malott Jean Stein * Recently Deceased 27

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Charter Society In recognition of members and friends who contributed between $1,000 and $2,499 to the National Academies in 2007. Francois M. Abboud Sue K. Donaldson C. Everett Koop Allan Rosenfield Andreas Acrivos Kathleen A. Dracup Edward A. Kravitz Anatol Roshko Robert McC. Adams Richard H. Egdahl James S. and Elinor G. Langer Vinod K. Sahney Bobby R. Alford Emanuel Epstein I. Robert Lehman Randy Schekman Clarence R. Allen Ronald W. Estabrook Jeffrey A. Lieberman Thomas C. Schelling Lawrence K. Altman Gary Felsenfeld Olga F. Linares Steven A. Schroeder Wyatt W. Anderson Hans and Verena Frauenfelder Rodolfo R. Llinas Andrew M. Sessler Edward M. Arnett Carl Frieden R. Duncan Luce Richard B. Setlow Robert Austrian* Edward A. Frieman George D. Lundberg Donna E. Shalala Clyde and Jeanette Baker Fred H. Gage Richard H. Lyon Samuel C. Silverstein John D. Baldeschwieler Joseph G. Gall J. Ross Macdonald Harold C. Sox, Jr. Rosemary A. Stevens and Jack Irma Gigli James S. and Judith M. Marks Robert D. Sparks D. Barchas Sid Gilman Angela Barron McBride William N. Spellacy Roger N. Beachy David V. Goeddel Roger O. McClellan Ralph M. Steinman May R. Berenbaum Avram Goldstein Donald S. McClure Joan Steitz Paul Berg Morris Goodman Harden M. McConnell Thomas A. Steitz Kenneth I. Berns William E. Gordon Marie C. McCormick F. William Studier R. Byron Bird Jeff Gore Richard A. McCray Albert J. Stunkard Lutz Birnbaumer Ronald L. Graham Frank B. McDonald Morris and Charlotte Robert J. Blendon Harry B. Gray James K. Mitchell Tanenbaum Barry R. Bloom Melvin M. Grumbach James J. Mongan Thomas N. Taylor Felix Boehm Ashley T. Haase Nancy A. Moran Bruce Tenenbaum Jo Ivey Boufford M. A. Haynes Aron Arthur Moscona Samuel O. Thier John I. Brauman Bernadine P. Healy Maria I. New Anita and George Thompson Harold Brown Ruby P. Hearn Gilbert S. Omenn Daniel C. Tosteson Eugenio Calabi John L. Hennessy June E. Osborn Karl K. Turekian Federico Capasso Howard H. Hiatt Douglas D. Osheroff Wylie Vale Christine K. Cassel Ralph F. Hirschmann C. Kumar N. Patel William N. Valentine Arthur and Mary Code Leroy Hood Ruth Patrick Harold E. Varmus Michael D. Coe Peter M. Howley John E. Porter Martha Vaughan Sheldon Cohen Sarah B. Hrdy Frank and Billie Press Peter K. Vogt Drs. Barry and Bobbi Coller Hedvig Hricak Helen M. Ranney Robert B. Wallace Esther M. Conwell William N. Hubbard, Jr. Buddy D. Ratner Myron L. Weisfeldt R. James Cook Tony Hunter Mark A. Ratner Thomas E. Wellems Erminio Costa Richard T. Johnson Peter H. Raven Dr. and Mrs. James A. Wells Molly J. Coye Richard V. Kadison Arthur D. Riggs Catherine M. Wilfert Linda A. Cozzarelli Samuel L. Katz Emanuel P. Rivers Jean D. Wilson Igor B. Dawid Peter S. Kim R. G. Hamish Robertson Tilahun D. Yilma Carl de Boor David M. Kipnis Alix Robinson Haile T. Debas T. Kent Kirk Paul Grant Rogers Other Individual Donors In recognition of members and friends who contributed up to $999 to the National Academies in 2007. Suheil F. Abdulnur Robert A. Alberty Nancy C. Andreasen Elizabeth Armentrout John Abelson Paula G. Allen-Meares Kathleen G. Andreoli Suzanne H. Arps Rita Abessinio Carolyn Alper Nancy C. Andrews Ann M. Arvin Herbert L. Abrams Joel J. Alpert Marcia Angell Arthur K. Asbury Jan D. Achenbach Sidney Altman George J. Annas Arthur Ashkin Stephen L. Adler Jeanne Altmann Anonymous G. G. Ashwell Bernard W. Agranoff Ron J. Anderson Charlotte Appella Brian F. Atwater * Recently Deceased 28

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Dennis A. Ausiello Norman E. Breslow Ursula Daniels Stanley Fields K. Frank Austen Winslow R. Briggs James E. Darnell, Jr. Clement A. Finch W. Gerald Austen W. F. Brinkman Jesse P. Darnell Morris E. Fine Joan K. Austin Norman H. Brooks Philip D. Darney Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts Daniel L. Azarnoff Dorothy Brooten Jacqueline E. Darroch Gerald D. Fischbach Eve Bachrach Donald D. Brown William H. Daughaday Michael E. Fisher Howard L. Bailit Sarah G. Brown Edward E. David, Jr. Robert A. Fishman Paul T. Baker* George Bruening John R. David Charles D. Flagle, D.Eng. Robert W. Balluffi Donnie L. Bryant David R. Davies Kent V. Flannery Rose and John Bannigan Robert L. Bryant Gordon H. DeFriese Gary R. Fleisher William A. Bardeen Philip H. Bucksbaum Hans G. Dehmelt Lee A. Fleisher Clyde F. Barker Joseph A. Buckwalter Johann Deisenhofer Juanita W. Fleming Jeremiah A. Barondess Patricia A. Buffler Pierre Deligne Christopher C. Fordham III Linda H. Barondess Martin J. Bukovac David L. Denlinger Daniel W. Foster Michele Barry Benjamin S. Bunney Patrick P. Dennis T. Kenneth Fowler William G. Barsan Maurice B. Burg Paul M. Densen Richard G. Frank Stephen W. Barthold Ann W. Burgess Charles H. DePuy Shirley R. Fried Gerald Barton Bernard F. Burke Stanley Deser Dennis G. Fryback Irwin and Miriam Baskind Donald L. Burkholder Robert J. Desnick Robert F. Furchgott Bruce J. Baum John Cairns, Jr. Don E. Detmer Douglas J. Futuyma Howard and Alice Baum Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Thomas Detre Mitchell H. Gail Stanley Baum Erika T. Camacho Peter B. Dews Mary K. Gaillard Gordon A. Baym Allan Campbell Nancy Wilson Dickey E. John Gallagher John C. Beck M. Paul Capp Allen J. Dietrich Rodolfo and Jean Garcia Richard E. Behrman John A. Carbon David L. Dilcher Kenneth Garner Helmut Beinert* Diana D. Cardenas Salvatore DiMauro Arthur Garson Marlene Belfort Ariel and Mary Cardoso Avinash K. Dixit E. Peter Geiduschek Baruj Benacerraf William B. Carey Jualynne E. Dodson Martin Gellert Leslie Z. Benet John E. Carlstrom Roy H. Doi Rochel Gelman Joan W. Bennett Welford Castleman, Jr. Sarah S. Donaldson Jessie Gertman Jeffrey L. Bennetzen Willard Cates, Jr. David L. Donoho Mr. and Mrs. Wayne G. John A. Benson, Jr. Webster K. Cavenee Robert D. Drennan Giannotti Robert and Wendy Bergman Constance L. Cepko Floyd Dunn Barbara L. Gilchrest Ruth L. Berkelman Martin Chalfie Johanna T. Dwyer David Ginsburg Lionel M. Bernstein R. A. Charo Mary Dwyer Mark and Suzanne Gladstone Jerome A. Berson John S. Chipman James L. Dye Robert J. Glaser Peter J. Bickel Francisco G. Cigarroa Adam M. Dziewonski Andrew M. Gleason Grace and Jacob Bigeleisen George W. Clark Felton J. Earls Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Glick Timothy R. Billiar Ellen Wright Clayton Timothy Eberlein Arnold and Avriel Goldberger Lewis R. Binford Michael T. Clegg David S. Eisenberg M. L. Goldberger Eula Bingham Linda Hawes Clever Robert N. Eisenman Janice F. Goldblum Mina J. Bissell Albert M. Clogston Neil J. Elgee Lewis R. Goldfrank Robert L. Black Carolyn Cohen Ernest L. Eliel Susan Sachs Goldman Dan G. Blazer Marshall H. Cohen Peter T. Ellison Jerry P. Gollub Clara D. Bloomfield Morrel H. Cohen S. Walter Englander Solomon W. Golomb Robert W. Blum Mildred Cohn Alain C. Enthoven Ward H. Goodenough Baruch S. Blumberg Graham A. Colditz Robert M. Epstein Joyce S. Goodman Thomas F. Boat Jack M. Colwill W. G. Ernst Alice and Robert Goodman Allan G. Bogue Edward J. Connors Joseph W. Eschbach* Richard M. Goody Richard J. Bonnie Max D. Cooper Caswell A. Evans, Jr. Leon Gordis William H. Bowen Charles S. Cox Alex S. Evers Lev P. Gorkov L. Thompson Bowles Gary Cox Sandra M. Faber Emil C. Gotschlich Allan M. Brandt Ralph Crawshaw Harold J. Fallon Robert Graham Mr. and Mrs. Michael Bratt F. Fleming Crim Robert M. Fano William R. Granik Paula A. Braveman John C. Crowell Stephen Farber David L. Gray Jeane Breinig James H. Curry Don W. Fawcett Margie and Larry A. Green Murray F. Brennan Anastasia C. Curwood George Feher Lazar J. Greenfield Patricia F. Brennan Carola Czernik Rashi Fein William T. Greenough Nancy Breslin Alexander Dalgarno Thomas and Barbara Ferbel Nathaniel Greenspun Jan L. Breslow Brent and Sharon Dalrymple Stuart Ferency Lorna Grenadier * Recently Deceased 29

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Robert B. Griffiths Andre T. Jagendorf Anthony Leggett Marcia K. McNutt Gerald N. Grob Anthony A. James Estella B. Leopold James C. McWilliams Marilyn and Norman Grossblatt Jack C. James Alan I. Leshner Alaf I. Meleis Michael Grossman Richard Janeway Robert L. Letsinger Peter Mermagen Mark T. Groudine Bryan Jew Johanna M. H. Levelt Sengers Richard A. Merrill Fernando A. Guerra Braulio D. Jimenez Howard Leventhal Henry Metzger Frank T. Gulino and Ann C. Michael M. E. Johns C. S. Levings III Thomas J. Meyer Allman Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Guenter Lewy Charles D. Michener Laurie M. Gunter Wolfgang K. Joklik Walter and Lois Liggett Ricardo Miledi Christine Guthrie Jiri Jonas Susan L. Lindquist Edward L. Miles Peter Haas, Jr. Charles Nelson Jones Richard S. Lindzen Paul R. Milgrom Willy Haeberli Edward G. Jones Barbara H. Liskov I. George Miller, Jr. Caroline Breese Hall H. Ronald Kaback Iris F. Litt Larry J. Miller Jeffrey C. Hall Jerome Kagan Walter and Joan Lockland Louis H. Miller Morris Halle Eugenia Kalnay Gwilym S. Lodwick II Mark Miller Charles R. Halpern Emmett B. Keeler Irving M. London Beatrice Mintz Philip C. Hanawalt Gabor D. Kelen Kathleen M. Lopez Mortimer Mishkin Ruth S. Hanft Edmond J. Keller Laszlo Lorand William E. Moerner Amir and Margit Hanna K. I. Kellermann George and Freia Lorimer Harold A. Mooney William Happer Charles F. Kennel Bernard Lown Dr. and Mrs. C. Bradley Moore Stephen E. Harris James P. Kennett Ruth W. Lubic Peter B. Moore Robert and Margot Haselkorn Edwin D. Kilbourne Harold S. Luft Herbert and Michele Morris Richard J. Havel Linda M. Kilroy Rachel E. Lynch Michelle Morris C. V. Haynes, Jr. Ivan R. King Calvin Macke John H. Moxley III Jerris R. Hedges Lonnie J. King Susan E. Mackinnon Sezaki K. Mtingwa D. S. Heeschen Sheldon S. King Margaret E. Mahoney Fitzhugh Mullan Richard and Marilyn Heiman Talmadge E. King, Jr. Anthony P. Mahowald Walter H. Munk Adam Heller Donald C. Malins Jane Murphy and Christopher Richard J. Kitz Robert W. Hellwarth Dr. and Mrs. Thomas F. Kearney Todd R. Klaenhammer Donald A. Henderson Malone Eugene W. Nester Seymour J. Klebanoff Ernest M. Henley Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Malovany Elizabeth F. Neufeld Herbert D. Kleber Jane E. Henney Floyd J. Malveaux Duncan B. Neuhauser Claude B. Klee George P. Hess Henri R. Manasse, Jr. Tillman Neuner Luella Klein Robert L. Hill Audrey F. Manley Joseph P. Newhouse Marilyn W. Klein Maude E. Hines Vincent T. Marchesi Sharon Newman Miles V. Klein Drs. Kurt and Rochelle Alexander R. Margulis Elena and Stuart Nightingale Andrew H. Knoll Hirschhorn Hans Mark Richard P. Novick Leon Knopoff Rochelle Hirschhorn James D. Marks Margaret E. O'Kane William S. Knowles John P. Hirth Paul A. Marks Neil D. Opdyke Howard K. Koh Mahlon Hoagland Joseph B. Martin Leo and Florence Orbach Jeffrey P. Koplan Robin M. Hochstrasser Manuel Martinez-Maldonado Walter A. Orenstein Stephen G. Kraskin Joseph F. Hoffman Ida M. Martinson Gordon H. Orians Anne O. Krueger David S. Hogness Egon and Irene Marx Donald S. Ornstein Ada Kulyk Frank Hole Louis M. Kunkel Douglas S. Massey Jeremiah P. Ostriker Barry H. Honig Carl Kupfer John C. Mather Larry E. Overman Thomas F. Hornbein Sydney Kustu Rowena G. Matthews Lyman A. Page Donald F. Hornig William Labov Elizabeth R. McAnarney Peter Palese James S. House Robert A. Lamb Charles A. McCallum Arthur B. Pardee Roger Howe David S. Landes Bob and Mary McCleary Mary-Lou Pardue Wayne L. Hubbell Norma M. Lang Esther M. McConnell Robert G. Parr John P. Huchra Henry Lardy Dusa McDuff John A. Parrish John R. Huizenga Cato T. Laurencin Bruce S. McEwen George W. Parshall Valerie Faye Hunt Judith R. Lave James and Becky McGaugh Eileen Parsons Lisa I. Iezzoni Nancy L. Lawrence Kenneth G. McKay Barbara H. Partee Thomas S. Inui Theodore S. Lawrence Christopher F. McKee Ira Pastan Kurt J. Isselbacher Joel L. Lebowitz Lionel W. McKenzie William E. Paul Edgar B. Jackson, Jr. David M. Lee William McLeod and Caroline Gordon H. Pettengill J. David Jackson Philip R. Lee Herbert Theodore L. Phillips Robert B. Jaffe Virginia M. Lee James O. McNamara Roberta Pieczenik * Recently Deceased 30

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Chester M. Pierce Barbara A. Schaal Dale F. Stein Harry H. Wasserman Allan Pitcher John A. Schellman Daniel Steinberg Michael S. Waterman Jeffrey L. Platt Harold A. Scheraga Donald F. Steiner Patty Jo Watson Thomas D. Pollard Joseph E. Scherger Laszlo and Barbara Herbert Weissbach Leopold J. Pospisil Gerold L. Schiebler Steingaszner Michael J. Welch Deborah E. Powell Kathleen Schmidt Mangi Donald M. Steinwachs Zena Werb William H. Press Richard M. Schoen Walther Stoeckenius Susan R. Wessler Dean Price William R. Schowalter Susanne A. Stoiber Ann West Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Price Vern L. Schramm Gilbert Stork John B. West Ronald F. Probstein Gerald Schubert Richard Stoyer John R. Whinnery James and Mary Procopis Josephine Schuda Robert Straus Raymond P. White, Jr. Paul G. Quie Gertrud M. Schupbach Federico Subervi-Velez Jeanine P. Wiener-Kronish Mitchell T. Rabkin Cynthia Schwabacher-Jamplis Moira Sucharov Mary N. Wilburn Henry J. Reed Lou Ellen Schwartz Mervyn W. Susser David A. Wilkinson Lester J. Reed John H. Schwarz Norman Sutin Kim Willenson Richard J. Reed* Matthew P. Scott Robert and Valerie Sutter James T. Willerson Maryse Rhein Nevin S. Scrimshaw Morton N. Swartz George C. Williams Kenneth A. Ribet Sheldon J. Segal Lawrence A. Tabak T. Franklin Williams Charles M. Rice Dennis J. Selkoe Herbert Tabor Donald E. Wilson John R. Rice Hershel Shanks Nancy J. Tarbell Jewell D. Wilson Alexander Rich Kathryn Shanley Palmer Taylor Linda S. Wilson Cecil Richardson Iris R. Shannon Susan S. Taylor William J. Wilson Charles C. Richardson Aaron J. Shatkin Alvin J. and Faye Thompson Elizabeth S. Wing Burton Richter George F. Sheldon Craig B. Thompson Evelyn M. Witkin Nancy G. Roman Kenneth I. Shine Gerald E. Thomson Owen N. Witte Murray Rosenblatt Melvyn Shochet David J. Thouless Gerald N. Wogan Linda Rosenstock Stephen Shocket and Erica Pan Peter S. Tong Barbara L. Wolfe Mark R. Rosenzweig Edward H. Shortliffe George H. Trilling Richard V. Wolfenden Cornelius Rosse Gerald I. Shulman Susan Tsutakawa and Ken Lincoln Wolfenstein Michael G. Rossmann Paul A. Sieving Mizukura M. Gordon and Elaine Wolman Emanuel and Marilyn Rouvelas Robert J. Silbey Gordon and Mary Tubbs Maurice Wood Diane Rowland Gail Silverstone John C. Tully William B. Wood III Abraham M. Rudolph Blanca G. Silvestrini J. Anthony Tyson H. Boyd Woodruff Erkki Ruoslahti Curtis R. Simic Philip E. Uhlmann Carl Wunsch Louise B. Russell Sara Richards and Rolf Sinclair Sandy and Myron Uman James B. Wyngaarden Clarence A. Ryan* Richard J. Smith Roger H. Unger Eli Yablonovitch Martin R. Saiz V. Kerry Smith Walter J. Unger Beverly and Daniel Yett Bruce J. Sams Robert R. Sokal Leslie G. Ungerleider Wayne M. Yokoyama Leona D. Samson Louis Sokoloff K. E. van Holde Jonathan Yorba Linda & Jeffrey Samuels David H. Solomon Neal A. Vanselow Laurence R. Young Jack Sandweiss Edward I. Solomon George Veronis Patricia C. Zambryski Otto Santa Ana Alfred Sommer Dan-Virgil Voiculescu Maria E. Zavala Myriam P. Sarachik Gabriela Soto Laveaga Peter and Josephine von Hippel Jan A. D. Zeevaart Alan C. Sartorelli Patricia G. Spear David B. Wake E-an Zen Lynn Sassin and Nathan Charles S. Spencer Dr. and Mrs. Edward Wallach Mr. and Mrs. John Zoldak Braverman Allen M. Spiegel Patrick C. Walsh George D. Zuidema David Satcher Peter J. Stang G. J. Wasserberg Peter T. Scardino Claude M. Steele Judith Wasserheit Foundations American Board of Pediatrics Foundation The Atlantic Philanthropies American Board on Internal Medicine Foundation Baltimore Community Foundation American Legacy Foundation The Beall Family Foundation America's Health Insurance Plans Foundation Bell Family Foundation Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson Foundation The Diane & Norman Bernstein Foundation Archstone Foundation Ernest & Bonnie Beutler Foundation * Recently Deceased 31

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Shirley and Cabell Brand Charitable Trust Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Brewster Foundation The Kavli Foundation Brinkman Family Foundation W. M. Keck Foundation The Harold & Colene Brown Family Foundation W. K. Kellogg Foundation The Burnham Foundation Esther A. and Joseph Klingenstein Fund, Inc. Burroughs Wellcome Fund Kramer Family Foundation The California Endowment Richard Lounsbery Foundation California HealthCare Foundation The Henry Luce Foundation W.P. Carey Foundation The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Carnegie Corporation of New York Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation The Annie E. Casey Foundation The Malott Family Foundation Charina Endowment Fund Alfred E. Mann Foundation for Biomedical Engineering Charlottesville Area Community Foundation March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation The Commonwealth Fund The Marisla Foundation The Community Foundation for Greater Atlanta, Inc. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Connecticut Health Foundation, Inc. Milbank Memorial Fund Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Missouri Foundation for Health East Bay Community Foundation The Cynthia and George Mitchell Foundation The Ellison Medical Foundation The Ambrose Monell Foundation Farm Foundation Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation F. Felix Foundation National Dialogue on Cancer Foundation The Ford Foundation National Starch and Chemical Foundation, Inc. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation The New York Community Trust The Gill Foundation The David and Lucile Packard Foundation Golden Family Foundation The Packard Humanities Institute William T. Grant Foundation The Philadelphia Foundation Great Lakes Protection Fund The Retirement Research Foundation The Greenwall Foundation The Rockefeller Foundation The Grossman Family Charitable Foundation Russell Sage Foundation Otto Haas Charitable Trust The San Francisco Foundation The John A. Hartford Foundation, Inc. The Seattle Foundation Healthcare Georgia Foundation Sherpalo Ventures The Hearst Foundation, Inc. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Howard Heinz Endowment The Spencer Foundation The F.B. Heron Foundation The Starr Foundation The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation The Clara J. Szekely Foundation Hirsh Family Foundation The Tinker Foundation Inc. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Triangle Community Foundation, Inc. The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of United Health Foundation Military Medicine United Nations Foundation Jewish Community Foundation of Durham-Chapel Hill The Whitehead Foundation Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation The Winston-Salem Foundation The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Corporations Abbott Laboratories AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP Advanced Medical Optics AWAB, Incorporated The Aerospace Corporation Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. Affymetrix, Inc. Battelle Alliant Techsystems, Inc. Bausch & Lomb, Inc. Altarum Becton Dickinson and Company Altria Group, Inc. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Amgen, Inc. Blue Cross of California ANTEM Blue Shield of California Foundation Arch Chemicals, Inc. The Boeing Company ASM International Booz Allen Hamilton Assureimmune Bose Corporation 32

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Boston Scientific Corporation Essilor of America, Inc. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company ExOne Cancer Care, Inc. Experient, Inc. Caterpillar Foundation ExxonMobil Corporation Cenerx Biopharma, Inc. ExxonMobil Foundation Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Ford Motor Company The Clorox Company Gallery Paule Anglim The Coca-Cola Company GE Energy The Coca-Cola Foundation GE Foundation Corning Incorporated GE Healthcare DLA Piper US Genentech, Inc. The Dow Chemical Company General Mills, Inc. The Dow Chemical Foundation General Motors Corporation DuPont Company Genetic Alliance Edwards Lifesciences LLC Genomic Health, Inc. Eli Lilly and Company Genzyme Corporation Entelos, Inc. GlaxoSmithKline GlaxoSmithKline Foundation Northrop Grumman Corporation Glickenhaus Foundation Orbital Sciences Corporation Google, Inc. Pacific Gas & Electric Company Hewlett-Packard Company Partners HealthCare Systems, Inc. Humana, Inc. Pfizer, Inc. Information Network, Inc. PPG Industries, Inc. Intel Corporation Research Corporation International Business Machines Corporation Rohm & Haas Company John Deere Rutherford, Brown & Catherwood Johnson & Johnson Sanofi Pasteur Kaiser Permanente Sanofi-aventis Kellogg Company Scarbrough Ventures LLC Kimberly-Clark Corporation The Charles Schwab Corporation Kraft Foods, Inc. Semiconductor Industry Association Lockheed Martin Corporation Semiconductor Research Corporation The Lubrizol Corporation State Farm Insurance Companies Lucent Technologies, Inc. Stryker Mars, Incorporated T & E, Inc. McCormick & Company Texas Instruments Incorporated Merck & Company, Inc. TIAA-CREF Merck Company Foundation UBS Financial Services Inc. Merck Partnership for Giving United Engineering Foundation, Inc. Merck Research Laboratories UnitedHealth Group, Inc. Merrill Lynch & Company, Inc. The UPS Foundation Microsoft Corporation Waggener Edstrom Minerals Technologies, Inc. Wells Fargo Private Bank Monsanto Company Wyeth National Instruments Xerox Corporation Other Organizations Academy for Educational Development American Association of Retired Persons Adelphi University American Astronomical Society Advanced Medical Technology Association American Cancer Society, Inc. Advisor Charitable Gift Fund American Chemical Society Alliance for Science and Technology American Chemistry Council Alzheimer's Association American College of Emergency Physicians American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American College of Medical Genetics American Academy of Family Physicians American College of Physicians American Academy of Pediatrics American College of Surgeons American Association for Laboratory Animal Science American Diabetes Association American Association of Blood Banks American Hospital Association 33

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American Mathematical Society Georgetown University American Medical Association Georgia Institute of Technology American Nurses Association Georgia State University The American Physical Society Georgia Tech Research Corporation American Psychological Association The Glenmede Trust Company American Public Transportation Association Graduate Theological Union American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Harvard University American Society for Engineering Education Hebrew Union College American Society for Microbiology Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute American Society of Clinical Oncology Hunt Institute American Society of Mechanical Engineers IEEE American Sociological Association Illinois Institute of Technology American Trucking Association Indiana University at Bloomington The American Veterinary Medical Association Infectious Diseases Society of America Arizona State University Institute for Public Health and Water Research Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Institute of International Education, Inc. Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine International Society for Optical Engineering Association of American Medical Colleges Iowa State University Association of American Railroads James Madison University Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Jewish Community Endowment Fund Auburn University The Johns Hopkins University Baylor University Kansas State University Boston College Kent State University Boston University Loma Linda University Bowling Green State University Louisiana State University Brandeis University Loyola University Chicago The British Society Massachusetts Institute of Technology Brown University Massachusetts Technology Collaborative California Institute for Regenerative Medicine Mathematical Association of America California Institute of Technology Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Carnegie Mellon University Medical College of Georgia Case Western Reserve University Merck Institute for Science Education Catholic University Miami University of Ohio The China Sustainable Energy Program Michigan State University Claremont Colleges MichiganTech Clark University The Microcirculatory Society, Inc. Clarkson University Mississippi State University Clinical Child Psychology Montana State University, Bozeman Coevolution Institute Morehouse School of Medicine Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians College of American Pathologists National Association of EMS Physicians College Of William and Mary National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship Colorado State University National Geographic Society Education Foundation Columbia University National Math and Science Initiative, Inc. Computing Research Association National Multiple Sclerosis Society Cornell University National Society of Genetic Counselors Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors Nature America, Inc. Dartmouth College New England Journal of Medicine Drew University New Jersey Institute of Technology Drexel University New Mexico State University Duke University New York Medical College Duquesne University New York University Emergency Medicine Residents Association North Carolina State University Emergency Nurses Association Northeastern University Federal Reserve Bank of New York Northwestern University Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology The Ohio State University Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund Oklahoma State University Florida Atlantic University Optical Society of America Florida Institute of Technology Oregon Health and Science University Florida International University Oregon State University Fordham University Penn State University George Washington University Pershing Advisor Solutions 34

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Population Reference Bureau University of Houston Princeton Theological Seminary University of Idaho Public Entity Risk Institute University of Illinois Purdue University University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University of Iowa The Research Foundation of State University of New York The University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc. Rice University University of Louisville The Rockefeller University University of Maryland The Royal Society University of Maryland, Baltimore Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey University of Massachusetts San Diego State University University of Memphis Schwab Charitable Fund University of Michigan Scientists Center for Animal Welfare University of Minnesota Seton Hall University University of Mississippi Simon Fraser University University of Missouri Society for Neuroscience University of Montana Society of Academic Emergency Medicine University of Nevada Society of Pediatric Psychology University of New Hampshire Southern Illinois University University of New Mexico Southern Methodist University University of New Orleans Stanford University University of North Carolina State University of New York University of North Carolina at Charlotte State University of New York Medical Center University of North Dakota Stevens Institute of Technology University of North Texas Syracuse University University of North Texas Health Sciences Center Tennessee Technological University University of Notre Dame Texas A&M University University of Oklahoma Texas Christian University University of Oregon Texas State University The University of Pennsylvania Texas Tech University University of Pittsburgh Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology University of Rhode Island Thomas Jefferson University University of Southern California Tufts University University of Southern Mississippi United States Institute of Peace University of Tennessee University of Alabama The University of Texas University of Alaska University of Texas at Dallas University of Arizona The University of Texas Medical Branch University of California, Berkeley University of Utah University of California, Davis University of Virginia University of California, Los Angeles University of Washington University of California, Riverside University of Wisconsin University of California, San Francisco Utah State University University of California, Santa Barbara Vanderbilt University University of Central Florida Vanderbilt University Medical Center University of Chicago Vanguard Charitable Endowment Program University of Cincinnati Virginia Commonwealth University University of Colorado Virginia Tech University University of Connecticut Wake Forest University University of Dallas Washington State University University of Dayton Washington University University of Detroit Wayne State University University of Florida West Virginia University University of Georgia Western Michigan University University of Hawaii Wright State University 35

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III. Financial Condition 37