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B Risk Descriptions from the Bioastronautics Roadmap, Program Requirements Document, and Evidence Books NASA Program Human Research Bioastronautics Requirements Document Program Evidence Roadmap (BR) (PRD) Books Risk descriptions from the BR that were not significantly modified in the PRD Renal stone formation Risk of renal stone Same as PRD formation Inadequate nutrition Same as PRD Risk of inadequate nutrition Carcinogenesis Risk of radiation Same as PRD carcinogenesis Acute and late central nervous Same as PRD Risk of acute or late system risks central nervous system effects from radiation exposure Chronic and degenerative Same as PRD Risk of degenerative tissue risks tissue or other health effects from radiation exposure Acute radiation risk Risk of acute radiation Same as PRD syndromes due to solar particle events Provide space suits and Risk of compromised Same as PRD portable life support EVA performance and systems crew health due to inadequate EVA suit systems 25

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26 REVIEW OF NASA’S HUMAN RESEARCH PROGRAM EVIDENCE BOOKS NASA Program Human Research Bioastronautics Requirements Document Program Evidence Roadmap (BR) (PRD) Books Risk descriptions from the BR that required significant modifications to ensure focus on mission relevance Injury to joints and Risk of intervertebral disk Same as PRD intervertebral structures damage Occurrence of cardiac Risk of cardiac rhythm Same as PRD dysrhythmias problems Pharmacology of space Risk of therapeutic failure Same as PRD medicine delivery due to ineffectiveness of medication Human performance failure due Risk of behavioral and Same as PRD to neurobehavioral psychiatric conditions problems Circadian rhythm problems Risk of performance Same as PRD errors due to sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, fatigue, and work overload Maintain food quantity and Risk factor of inadequate Risk of inadequate quality food system food system Risk factor of an inefficient food system Reduced muscle, strength, and Risk of impaired Same as PRD endurance performance due to reduced muscle mass, strength, and endurance Increased susceptibility to Risk of operational impact Same as PRD muscle damage of prolonged daily required exercise Limits for contaminants in air Risk of adverse health Same as PRD and water effects from lunar dust exposure

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27 APPENDIX B NASA Program Human Research Bioastronautics Requirements Document Program Evidence Roadmap (BR) (PRD) Books Poorly integrated ground, crew, Risk of performance Same as PRD and automation functions1 errors due to poor team cohesion and performance, inadequate selection/team composition, inadequate training, and poor psychosocial adaptation Mismatch between crew Risk associated with poor Lack of human- cognitive capabilities and task design centered design: task demands1 Subrisk associated with poor task design Lack of human- Mismatch between crew Risk of reduced safety and centered design: physical capabilities and efficiency due to poor Subrisk of reduced task demands human factors design safety and design due to poor human factors design Risk descriptions from the BR that were split into multiple risks in the PRD to be more specific Bone loss and fracture risk Risk of bone fracture Same as PRD Risk of accelerated Same as PRD osteoporosis Diminished cardiac and Risk of reduced physical Cardiovascular vascular function performance capabilities effects on due to reduced aerobic performance and capacity operational limitations: Subrisk of reduced physical performance capabilities due to reduced aerobic capacity

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28 REVIEW OF NASA’S HUMAN RESEARCH PROGRAM EVIDENCE BOOKS NASA Program Human Research Bioastronautics Requirements Document Program Evidence Roadmap (BR) (PRD) Books Diminished cardiac and Risk of unnecessary Cardiovascular vascular function (continued) operational limitations effects on due to inaccurate performance and assessment of operational cardiovascular limitations: performance Subrisk of unnecessary operational limitations due to inaccurate assessment of cardiovascular performance Risk of orthostatic Same as PRD intolerance during re- exposure to gravity Risks from the BR that were combined with others to show contributing factors Impaired sensory-motor Risk of impaired ability to Same as PRD capability to perform maintain control of operational tasks during vehicles and other flight, entry, and landing complex systems Impaired sensory-motor capability after landing Monitoring and prevention Risk of inability to Same as PRD Major illness and trauma adequately treat an ill Ambulatory care or injured crew Rehabilitation on Mars member Medical skill training and maintenance Poorly integrated ground, crew, Risk of performance Same as PRD and automation functions errors due to poor team Human performance failure due cohesion and to poor psychosocial performance, adaptation inadequate selection/team composition, inadequate training, and poor psychosocial adaptation

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29 APPENDIX B NASA Program Human Research Bioastronautics Requirements Document Program Evidence Roadmap (BR) (PRD) Books Poorly integrated ground, crew, Risk of error due to Lack of human- and automation functions1 inadequate availability centered design: Mismatch between crew of information Subrisk of error due cognitive capabilities and to inadequate task demands1 information Immune dysfunction Risk of crew-adverse Same as PRD Interaction among factors: health event due to infections and malignancy altered immune response 1 Poorly integrated ground, crew, and automation functions and mismatch between crew cognitive capabilities and task demands map both individually to specific risks in the PRD. In addition, each of these was combined to result in an extra risk being identified in the PRD and Evidence Books. The following risks were added to the PRD and subsequently transferred to the SLSD (Q: spell out) watch list: Risk of urinary tract dysfunction, risk of impaired vision due to refractive visual changes during long-duration spaceflight, risk of adverse health effects due to exposure to hypoxic environments, and risk of adverse health effects due to prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide levels. The following risks appeared in the BR, but not the PRD or Evidence Books: medical informatics, technologies, and support systems; monitor air quality; monitor external environment; monitor water quality; monitor surfaces, food, and soil; provide integrated autonomous control of life support systems; maintain acceptable atmosphere; maintain thermal balance in habitable areas; manage waste; provide and maintain bioregenerative life support systems; provide and recover potable water; alterations in microbes and host interactions; motion sickness; and impaired fracture healing.

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