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An Initial Review of Microgravity Research in Support of Human Exploration and Development of Space Committee on Microgravity Research Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NOTICE MEMBERSHIP

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PREFACE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION NASA and the Human Exploration of Space HEDS Technologies An Initial Appraisal References 2. THE CURRENT MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH PROGRAM AND HEDS GOALS HEDS Goal 1: Increase Knowledge of Nature Using the Space Environment Fluid Physics Materials Science Combustion Biotechnology Low-temperature Microgravity Physics The Importance of Fundamental Research New Challenges: HEDS Goals 2, 3, and 4, 10 References 3. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDED FOR HEDS: EXAMPLES FROM AN INITIAL APPRAISAL Fluid Management Systems Fundamental Effects of Microgravity Microgravity Challenges Bulk Fluid Management Two-phase Instabilities Heat Transfer Exchange and Separation Spills Flows in Fractional Gravity Materials and Structural Systems Fundamental Effects of Low Gravity on Materials Processing Microgravity Challenges Welding Structures Biotechnology Aspects of Life Support Fundamental Effects of Microgravity Microgravity Challenges Mammalian Cell and Tissue Culture Microbial and Plant Cell Culture Bioseparations Current MRD Biotechnology Research Applicable to HEDS Space Navigation

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Fire Safety Fundamental Effects of Low Gravity on Combustion Processes Flammability Limits Diffusion Flames Smoldering Flame Spreading Microgravity Challenges In Situ Resource Utilization Fundamental Effects of Low Gravity on Materials and Chemical Processing Microgravity Challenges Resource Materials Energy Production for In Situ Resource Utilization, Energy Storage Impacts on HEDS Goals Relevance of Current MRD Research Dynamics and Machines Film Bearings for HEDS Applications Multibody Dynamics and Space Robotics Propulsion and Power in Microgravity The Thruster The Power Cycle Thermal Control Systems Need for Design Simplicity Relevance of Current MRD Research Artificial Gravity References 4. PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES References APPENDIX: GLOSSARY

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An Initial Review of Microgravity Research in Support of Human Exploration and Development of Space NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

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The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies of this report are available from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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An Initial Review of Microgravity Research in Support of Human Exploration and Development of Space Membership COMMITTEE ON MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN,* Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Chair ROBERT A. ALTENKIRCH, Washington State University ROBERT L. ASH, Old Dominion University ROBERT J. BAYUZICK, Vanderbilt University GRETCHEN DARLINGTON, Baylor College of Medicine HOWARD M. EINSPAHR,* Bristol-Myers Squibb Company L. GARY LEAL, University of California, Santa Barbara RALPH A. LOGAN, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) MARGARET J. LYELL,* West Virginia University FRANKLIN K. MOORE, Cornell University JOHN D. REPPY,* Cornell University ROSALIA N. SCRIPA, University of Alabama, Birmingham FORMAN A. WILLIAMS, University of California, San Diego SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director CATHY GRUBER, Senior Program Assistant __________________ * Former member. SPACE STUDIES BOARD CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University JAMES P. BAGIAN,* Environmental Protection Agency DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University DONALD E. BROWNLEE, University of Washington

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JOHN J. DONEGAN,* John Donegan Associates, Inc. GERARD W. ELVERUM, Jr., TRW Space and Technology Group ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan MARILYN L. FOGEL, Carnegie Institution of Washington MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN,* Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RONALD GREELEY, Arizona State University WILLIAM GREEN, former member, U.S. House of Representatives ANDREW H. KNOLL, Harvard University JANET G. LUHMANN,* University of California, Berkeley ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, CIESIN BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire KENNETH H. NEALSON, University of Wisconsin MARY JANE OSBORN, University of Connecticut Health Center SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University MORTON B. PANISH, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) CARLÉ M. PIETERS, Brown University THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology MARCIA J. RIEKE,* University of Arizona PEDRO L. RUSTAN, Jr., U.S. Air Force (retired) JOHN A. SIMPSON, Enrico Fermi Institute GEORGE L. SISCOE, Boston University EDWARD M. STOLPER, California Institute of Technology RAYMOND VISKANTA, Purdue University ROBERT E. WILLIAMS, Space Telescope Science Institute MARC S. ALLEN, Director ________________ *Former member. COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory

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MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California at Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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An Initial Review of Microgravity Research in Support of Human Exploration and Development of Space Preface The study that is the subject of this preliminary report was initiated in early 1996 by a request to the Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) from the leadership of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division1 to perform an assessment of scientific and related technological issues facing NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) endeavor. Because the request involved an examination of technology issues, as well as scientific ones, the committee attempted to carefully tailor the scope of the task to its own, primarily scientific, expertise before agreeing to proceed. As a result the committee decided to consider mission enabling and enhancing technologies that, for development, would require an improved understanding of fluid and material behavior in a reduced-gravity environment. The committee would then identify opportunities for microgravity research to contribute to the understanding of fundamental scientific questions underlying exploration technologies and make recommendations for some areas of directed research. The study is being carried out in two phases, of which this report is the first. NASA is still in the early stages of identifying the specific technologies needed for HEDS; therefore this first report represents a preliminary look at broad categories of HEDS technologies. During the course of this study the committee was briefed by program managers from a number of different NASA divisions regarding the technology development needs of the agency, and it also reviewed the available NASA documentation on prior technology-forecasting activities. Among the previous National Research Council reports relevant to this study, the committee took particular note of the following: Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s, Space Studies Board, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (1995), reviews the various research topics currently studied within the different scientific disciplines of NASA's microgravity research program and provides research and programmatic priorities and recommendations.

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Space Technology to Meet Future Needs, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (1987), evaluates national advanced space technology requirements and recommends a long-term technology program focus for NASA. 1Now the Microgravity Research Division (MRD).