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An Initial Review of Microgravity Research in Support of Human Exploration and Development of Space Appendix: Glossary Atomic clock frequencies A clock whose timing is governed by the natural resonance of atoms or certain molecules Atom trap Spatial localizations of an atom by interaction with a laser beam Beneficiation Process of transforming raw materials into more concentrated or beneficial forms Bioreactor system A cell culture device that permits cell and tissue culturing in suspension and is designed to allow a fluid flow that results in a low-stress 1 environment with minimal shearing of cell aggregates; the rotating-wall, perfused 2 vessel bioreactor developed by NASA consists of two concentric cylinders, the 3 innermost of which is permeable and can be used to replenish nutrients and adjust 4 growth conditions in the culture chamber, which is between the cylinders Cell culture/tissue culture The in vitro growth of cells and tissue masses in a nutrient solution or gel CFD Computational fluid dynamics Coriolis force In a rotating system, a force proportional to the angular velocity Endothelial cells Cells that line the blood vessels; excessive proliferation of these cells can lead to reduced blood flow

OCR for page 48
Extracellular matrix Proteins that are produced by cells and are deposited outside the cell; these proteins often form the physical basis for cell adherence and migration in a tissue Film bearing A bearing in which forces are transmitted through thin but continuous fluid films (gas or liquid) that separate solid machine components G-jitter High-frequency acceleration spectrum Gel electrophoresis A process used to separate molecules by subjecting them to an electric current Heat pipe A container of two-phase fluid used to transfer heat efficiently Heat sink A reservoir to absorb thermal energy HEDS Human Exploration and Development of Space ISRU In situ resource utilization ISS International Space Station LPS Liquid phase sintering LSD Life Sciences Division (NASA) Marangoni force Surface tension-driven force MRD Microgravity Research Division (NASA) NRA NASA Research Announcement NRC National Research Council Organelles Small intracellular compartments and structures within the cell, e.g., mitochondria Quantum oscillator Frequency associated with electron transitions in atoms STEP Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle van der Waals forces Short-range attractive intermolecular forces