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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections NOTICE MEMBERSHIP FOREWORD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 Committee on Solar and Space Physics CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research REFERENCES APPENDIX Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexmenu.html (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:41:50 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections NOTICE MEMBERSHIP FOREWORD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. RECENTLY LAUNCHED SPACE PHYSICS EXPLORERS: SAMPEX AND FAST 3. THE NEWEST SPACE PHYSICS EXPLORERS: TRACE AND IMAGE 4. STEDI MISSIONS: MODELS FOR THE UNEX EXPLORER LINE 5. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX: ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS National Academy Press, 1997 file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexmenu.html (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:41:50 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Notice) Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committees responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. REPORT MENU NOTICE The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the MEMBERSHIP charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of FOREWORD outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility CHAPTER 1 for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also CHAPTER 2 sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages CHAPTER 3 education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. CHAPTER 4 Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. CHAPTER 5 REFERENCES APPENDIX The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexnot.html (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:41:58 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Notice) of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 96013 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The cover figure displays the main features of the Earth's auroral acceleration region that were known priot to the launch of the FAST (Fast Auroral Snapshot) spacecraft in August 1996. One in a series of NASA Small Explorer (SMEX) spacecraft, FAST was designed to study the detailed plasma physics of the Earth's auroral regions. From its 400 x 4000 km altitude near-polar orbit, instruments on the FAST spacecraft are providing high temporal and spatial resolution data on particles and fields in the regions where electrons are energized to form the aurora, and where ions are accelerated out of the ionosphere into the magnetosphere. These data are being analyzed to better understand the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexnot.html (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:41:58 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Membership) Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections Membership COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS JANET G. LUHMANN, University of California, Berkeley, Chair SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS, Naval Research Laboratory TAMAS GOMBOSI, University of Michigan RAYMOND A. GREENWALD, Applied Physics Laboratory ROBERT P. LIN, University of California, Berkeley MARGARET A. SHEA, Air Force Phillips Laboratory HARLAN E. SPENCE, Boston University KEITH T. STRONG, Lockheed Palo Alto Research Center MICHELLE F. THOMSEN, Los Alamos National Laboratory ARTHUR A. CHARO, Senior Program Officer CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Program Assistant REPORT MENU NOTICE MEMBERSHIP FOREWORD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY COMMITTEE ON SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 MARVIN A. GELLER, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Chair CHAPTER 3 GUY P. BRASSEUR, National Center for Atmospheric Research CHAPTER 4 JOHN T. GOSLING, Los Alamos National Laboratory CHAPTER 5 MAURA HAGAN, National Center for Atmospheric Research REFERENCES MARY K. HUDSON, Dartmouth College APPENDIX GORDON HURFORD, California Institute of Technology MICHAEL C. KELLEY, Cornell University NORMAN F. NESS, Bartol Research Institute THOMAS F. TASCIONE, Sterling Software H. FRANK EDEN, Senior Program Officer DORIS BOUADJEMI, Administrative Assistant file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexmem.html (1 of 5) [6/18/2004 1:42:22 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Membership) SPACE STUDIES BOARD CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair MARK R. ABBOTT, Oregon State University JAMES P. BAGIAN,* Environmental Protection Agency DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University DONALD E. BROWNLEE, University of Washington JOHN J. DONEGAN,* John Donegan Associates, Inc. GERARD W. ELVERUM, JR., TRW Space and Technology Group ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan MARILYN L. FOGEL, Carnegie Institute of Washington MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN,* Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RONALD GREELEY, Arizona State University BILL GREEN, former member, U.S. House of Representatives ANDREW H. KNOLL, Harvard University JANET G. LUHMANN,* University of California, Berkeley ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, CIESIN BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire KENNETH H. NEALSON, University of Wisconsin MARY JANE OSBORN, University of Connecticut Health Center SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University MORTON B. PANISH, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) CARLÉ M. PIETERS, Brown University THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology MARCIA J. RIEKE,* University of Arizona PEDRO L. RUSTAN, Jr., U.S. Air Force (retired) JOHN A. SIMPSON, Enrico Fermi Institute GEORGE L. SISCOE, Boston University EDWARD M. STOLPER, California Institute of Technology RAYMOND VISKANTA, Purdue University ROBERT E. WILLIAMS, Space Telescope Science Institute MARC S. ALLEN, Director ________________________ * Term ended in 1997. COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexmem.html (2 of 5) [6/18/2004 1:42:22 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Membership) LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California at Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE JOHN DUTTON, Pennsylvania State University, Chair ERIC J. BARRON, Pennsylvania State University WILLIAM L. CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology CRAIG E. DORMAN, Department of Defense FRANCO EINAUDI, Goddard Space Flight Center MARVIN A. GELLER, State University of New York, Stony Brook PETER V. HOBBS, University of Washington WITOLD F. KRAJEWSKI, University of Iowa MARGARET A. LeMONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research DOUGLAS K. LILLY, University of Oklahoma RICHARD S. LINDZEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GERALD R. NORTH, Texas A&M University EUGENE M. RASMUSSON, University of Maryland ROBERT J. SERAFIN, National Center for Atmospheric Research WILLIAM A. SPRIGG, Director COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Chair PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America JAMES P. BRUCE, Canadian Climate Program Board, Ottawa, Ontario WILLIAM L. FISHER, University of Texas, Austin file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexmem.html (3 of 5) [6/18/2004 1:42:22 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Membership) JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington THOMAS GRAEDEL, Yale University DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation KAI N. LEE, Williams College PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University JUDITH E. McDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington and Burling S. GEORGE PHILANDER, Princeton University RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland ELLEN SILBERGELD, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland STEPHEN RATTIEN, Executive Director (through August 1997) MYRON F. UMAN, Acting Executive Director Last update 10/4/00 at 4:39 pm file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexmem.html (4 of 5) [6/18/2004 1:42:22 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Foreword) Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections Foreword One of the recognized strengths of NASA's Explorer program, and arguably the reason for its long record of excellent science, is the fact that missions are selected competitively by peer review. Beyond specifying broad areas of research that will be considered, there are no restrictions on the scientific topics that the review committees could recommend for selection. Therefore, it is only when NASA officials choose the winner from among top-category proposals that consideration is given to how a particular Explorer mission might address the long-range scientific strategy in a given discipline. This report is a retrospective study of recent Explorer program selections in space physics. It concludes that the chosen missions do in fact address some high-priority goals of the field. It goes further to consider the degree to which the space physics strategic research goals can be realized by small and moderate REPORT MENU Explorer class missions, and it raises issues that can affect the future health and NOTICE vitality of the program. Now that NASA is relying on "smaller, faster, cheaper" MEMBERSHIP spacecraft to accomplish much of its science program, the findings of the report, FOREWORD and of several other recent studies dealing with small spacecraft,1 are particularly EXECUTIVE SUMMARY significant. CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 Claude R. Canizares, Chair REFERENCES Space Studies Board APPENDIX 1Space Studies Board, National Research Council, The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration (1995), Assessment of Recent Changes in the Explorer Program (1996), and Lessons Learned from the Clementine Mission (1997), National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexfore.html (1 of 2) [6/18/2004 1:42:34 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Executive Summary) Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections Executive Summary In this report, the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) assess how relevant recent Explorer mission selections are to the priority science goals identified in the National Research Council (NRC) report produced by the committees, A Science Strategy for Space Physics (SSB, 1995). Briefings by participants in a variety of Explorer missions, including the recent selections, Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE), were made to the committees in June 1996. This report summarizes the committees' findings and recommendations resulting from their deliberations. In addition, it addresses the broader issue of how well the present cost-capped Explorer program can meet the overall goals of the NRC Science Strategy report in this new era of "faster, cheaper, better" missions for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). REPORT MENU This report reviews the scientific objectives of TRACE and IMAGE and NOTICE concludes that both missions will address high-priority goals of the NRC Science MEMBERSHIP Strategy report for the Sun-Earth Connections research program. FOREWORD EXECUTIVE SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 The principal findings of the committees are as follows: CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 1. Both the most recently selected Small Explorer (SMEX) and Mid-size CHAPTER 4 Explorer (MIDEX) missions (TRACE and IMAGE, respectively) address high- CHAPTER 5 priority scientific issues fully consistent with the current primary science goals of REFERENCES the solar and space physics discipline, as identified by the NRC Science Strategy APPENDIX report (SSB, 1995). 2. Although the Explorers do an excellent job of focusing on specific scientific objectives, most of the broader top-priority objectives summarized in the NRC Science Strategy report can only be accomplished with larger, more scientifically capable missions. 3. To succeed within their severe cost constraints, Explorer missions cannot afford instruments that require lengthy development or space qualification file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexes.html (1 of 4) [6/18/2004 1:42:47 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Executive Summary) cycles. Therefore, the use of instruments and/or instrument subsystems that have been developed for previous missions is essential. The present funding cap on SMEX and MIDEX could well prove too restrictive for building scientifically first- rate missions without such instrument "heritage." Lessons learned from the space physics Explorers demonstrate the importance of instrument and spacecraft heritage in meeting science goals while remaining within cost and schedule limits. 4. The committees support NASA efforts to make the Explorer program more responsive to "missions of opportunity." However, they are concerned that relaxing current launch vehicle constraints on the Explorer program could attract suborbital and Shuttle-based missions that would previously have been funded under a different line. This could place additional strain on maintaining sufficient Explorer funding. 5. The current operation and management styles of the SMEX program—including mutually beneficial cooperation between NASA and non- NASA participants, reduction of documentation, and flexibility in that class—are fostering opportunities for excellent, high-priority science. 6. The extremely low selection rate (2/50) among the large number of proposed Explorer missions results in much effort spent fruitlessly in proposal preparation. This extra work puts a significant burden on the research community and their industrial partners. 7. As with many other flight missions, Explorer missions can often continue to provide important scientific knowledge well after the scheduled mission termination if appropriate funding is available. The committees recommend that NASA consider the following: 1. Establish a line of larger missions, such as Solar-Terrestrial Probes, because most of the broader, top-priority science objectives can only be accomplished with more capable missions. Explorer mission science could then be properly placed in the context of a coherent overall science program. This would include a balance of larger and smaller missions, suborbital projects, and research and analysis (R&A), all working synergistically to accomplish identified scientific objectives. 2. Adapt some of the management style and procedures associated with the SMEX program, as discussed in Finding No. 5 above, in other science programs. Recent spacecraft–Principal Investigator (PI) mode space physics Explorers (such as Solar and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer [SAMPEX] and Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer [FAST]) successfully demonstrate how high- priority science can be carried out in "faster, cheaper, better" ways. 3. Within NASA's R&A program, provide for some instrument development opportunities in addition to the suborbital program of rockets and balloons, because of the importance of instrument heritage to the success of file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexes.html (2 of 4) [6/18/2004 1:42:47 PM]

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Scientific Assessment of NASA's SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Mission Selections (Executive Summary) many Explorer experiments. 4. With respect to Explorer program proposals, consult the advisory groups before the final-stage proposal review process for a broad range of inputs and suggestions regarding candidates for membership on its all-important technical proposal review panel. This process could have a better chance of finding expert peer reviewers free of conflicts of interest. Last update 10/5/00 at 8:32 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smexes.html (3 of 4) [6/18/2004 1:42:47 PM]