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An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (Appendix) An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan APPENDIX Glossary ACE: Advanced Composition Explorer, whose objective is to determine and compare the elemental and isotopic composition of several distinct samples of matter, including the solar corona, the interplanetary medium, the local interstellar medium, and MENU galactic matter. The mission is scheduled for launch in 1997. NOTICE MEMBERSHIP Cassini: A major Saturn orbiter mission scheduled for launch in October REPORT 1997. Upon arrival at Saturn in 2004, it will deploy the ESA's APPENDIX Huygens Titan atmospheric probe and will conduct complex, multidisciplinary observations of the planet's atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, and satellites. Cluster: A four-spacecraft ESA mission built in collaboration with NASA that was lost during an aborted launch attempt of the Ariane-5. Cluster would have made 4-point identical particle and field measurements to allow separation of spatial and temporal structure in the high-latitude magnetosphere. A Cluster replacement mission is currently under study. CSSP: Committee on Solar and Space Physics, a standing committee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council CSTR: Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, a standing committee of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Research Council. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/sspapp.html (1 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:05:17 PM]

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An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (Appendix) ESA: European Space Agency Explorer: A continuing line of highly focused and low- to moderate-cost astrophysics/space physics missions that includes three mission classes, in order of decreasing size and cost: MIDEX, SMEX, and STEDI FAST: Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer, a SMEX mission for space physics Flare Genesis: A suborbital, long-duration balloon program focused on the study of developing solar active regions Galileo: A major Jupiter orbiter mission, launched aboard the space shuttle Atlantis in October 1989. When it reached Jupiter in December 1995, it deployed an atmospheric entry probe and then conducted complex, multidisciplinary observations of the planet's atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, and satellites. Geotail: Japan's contribution to the ISTP mission set, this spacecraft is in a highly elliptical low-inclination orbit that probes the deep magnetotail region of Earth's magnetosphere. NASA participates in this mission through science, instrumentation, and management contributions. GGS: Global Geospace Science program. The U.S. contribution to ISTP, this program includes the Wind and Polar spacecraft provided by NASA. HESI: High-energy solar imager, a concept for a mission envisioned as a possible solar-terrestrial probe focused on the study of solar flares IMAGE: The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration is a MIDEX-class mission selected by NASA in 1996 that will provide the first-ever global images of key regions of Earth's magnetosphere as it responds to variations in the solar wind. IMAGE will use three different experimental techniques to carry out its mission: radio sounding, ultraviolet imaging, and neutral atom imaging (neutral atom imagers detect neutral atoms created from magnetospheric ions via the process of charge exchange). Interstellar Probe: A concept for a mission that would explore the outer heliosphere and beyond ISTP: International Solar-Terrestrial Physics program, a multination space physics mission and ground-based research activity focused on understanding the energy flow from the Sun to Earth's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. GGS is the U.S. contribution to the ISTP program. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/sspapp.html (2 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:05:17 PM]

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An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (Appendix) MI: Magnetospheric imager, a concept for a solar-terrestrial probe mission that would use new techniques to provide the first moving images of changes in Earth's magnetosphere as it responds to highly variable injections of plasma from the Sun. MI will observe emissions of energetic neutral atoms and extreme and far ultraviolet photons to produce simultaneous images of various components of the magnetosphere. MIDEX: Mid-size Explorer, intended to provide research opportunities in the areas of astrophysics and space physics. Plans call for about one MIDEX mission to be launched per year, with development cost capped at no more that $70 million (FY1994 dollars) each, excluding the costs of the launch vehicle and mission operations and data analysis. Mission operations are expected to be completed within 2 years. NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration OSS: Office of Space Science (NASA) Pluto Express: A mission to conduct the first reconnaissance of Pluto and its large moon Charon with low-mass flyby spacecraft, will use advanced technologies and is intended to serve as a pathfinder for low-cost exploration of the outer solar system. The mission, planned for 2003, will complete the exploration of the last unvisited planet and address fundamental questions about the origin of the solar system. Polar: Polar is the second to be launched of the two NASA spacecrafts in the GGS program, which is the U.S. contribution to ISTP. The Polar spacecraft is measuring the entry, energization, and transport of plasma into the magnetosphere and the global energy deposition into the upper atmosphere. It is also being used to investigate the output of plasma from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. Polar was launched on February 24, 1996. Rosetta-Champollion: An approved ESA mission, scheduled for launch in January 2003, to rendezvous with a comet by means of an ESA orbiter spacecraft and two surface science packages. NASA participation will include the provision of one surface science package, Champollion (in cooperation with Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and possibly other partners); instruments for the surface science package and orbiter; and mission support. SAMPEX: Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, the first of NASA's SMEX missions. SAMPEX observations are providing information on the cosmic abundances of elements and their isotopes, the composition of the local intersteller gas, the solar composition and the mechanisms responsible for solar atmospheric heating, and electron energy injection into the Earth's upper atmosphere. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/sspapp.html (3 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:05:17 PM]

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An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (Appendix) SMEX: NASA's small explorer program provides frequent flight opportunities for highly focused and relatively inexpensive spacecraft weighing 180 to 250 kg. Each mission is expected to cost approximately $50 million for design, development, and operations through the first 30 days in orbit. SNOE: Student Nitric Oxide Explorer. Part of the STEDI program, SNOE is a small scientific spacecraft designed for launch on an ultralight expendable launch vehicle. The scientific goals of SNOE include (1) measurement of nitric oxide density in the lower thermosphere (90 to 200 km) and (2) analysis of the energy inputs from the Sun and magnetosphere that create nitric oxide and cause its abundance to vary dramatically. SOHO: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. An ESA mission with NASA involvement, SOHO will contribute to helioseismology and heliospheric research. SOHO was launched in November 1995. Solar-terrestrial probe: Proposed series of small spacecraft missions dedicated to solar and space physics. The first such missions would include TIMED, HESI, and MI. Space station: A large, Earth-orbiting crewed platform planned by NASA with substantial international involvement. The space station is expected to be deployed in the early years of the new millennium. STEDI: Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative, the smallest of the Explorer missions. The STEDI program is designed to involve students intensively in the design, building, and operation of small spacecraft. At a cost of less than $10 million each, STEDI missions are the next step up in mission capability from a sounding rocket and are nominally to be launched on Pegasus vehicles. TERRIERS: Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric Extreme-ultraviolet and Radio Sources (a terrier is also the mascot of Boston University, which is the host university for this STEDI mission). The TERRIERS spacecraft will make daily global measurements of Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. TIMED: Thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics mission. A concept for a solar-terrestrial probe focused on measuring the energy inputs to the upper atmosphere and their variations. TRACE: Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, a SMEX mission scheduled for launch in late 1997 that will observe the Sun to study the connection between its magnetic fields and the heating of the Sun's corona. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/sspapp.html (4 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:05:17 PM]

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An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of NASA's Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (Appendix) Ulysses: A joint NASA and ESA mission to explore the heliosphere over the full range of solar latitudes and to provide an accurate assessment of the total solar environment. Ulysses has completed its first solar polar pass and is in the process of its second. It has provided evidence of a dramatically different heliospheric environment that exists away from the ecliptic plane. Wind: A spacecraft focused on the measurement of the solar wind upstream of Earth's magnetosphere, designed to provide information on the prevailing interplanetary conditions during the ISTP program. Wind and Polar are part of the GGS program, NASA's contribution to ISTP. Last update 4/21/00 at 12:22 pm file:///C|/SSB_old_web/sspapp.html (5 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:05:17 PM]