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Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council Notice Membership Executive Summary 1. Introduction 2. Scientific Goals for the Exploration of Mars 3. Overview of Mars Surveyor and Other Mars Missions 4. Key Issues for NASA's Mars Exploration Program 5. Assessment of the Scientific Potential of NASA's Mars Exploration

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Planned Mars Program NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own

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initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Cover: Diagram of the Mars Surveyor program's 1998 Mars lander. (Courtesy of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.) Copies of this report are available from: Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Copyright © 2004. National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 500 Fifth St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001.

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Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program Membership COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION JOSEPH A. BURNS,* Cornell University, Chair RONALD GREELEY, Arizona State University, Successor Chair JAMES ARNOLD, University of California, San Diego FRANCES BAGENAL, University of Colorado JEFFREY R. BARNES, Oregon State University GEOFFREY A. BRIGGS,* NASA Ames Research Center MICHAEL H. CARR,* U.S. Geological Survey PHILIP R. CHRISTENSEN, Arizona State University RUSSELL DOOLITTLE, University of California, San Diego JAMES L. ELLIOT,* Massachusetts Institute of Technology HEIDI HAMMEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN F. KERRIDGE,* University of California, San Diego BARRY H. MAUK,* Applied Physics Laboratory GEORGE McGILL, University of Massachusetts, Amherst WILLIAM B. McKINNON,* Washington University HARRY McSWEEN, University of Tennessee TED ROUSH, San Francisco State University JOHN RUMMEL, Marine Biological Laboratory GERALD SCHUBERT, University of California, Los Angeles EUGENE SHOEMAKER, Lowell Observatory DARRELL F. STROBEL, Johns Hopkins University ALAN T. TOKUNAGA, University of Hawaii ROGER YELLE, Boston University MARIA T. ZUBER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Staff DAVID H. SMITH, Study Director ALTORIA B. ROSS, Senior Program Assistant

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*Term expired in 1995. SPACE STUDIES BOARD CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation (retired) JAMES P. BAGIAN, Environmental Protection Agency DANIEL N. BAKER, University of Colorado LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University DONALD E. BROWNLEE, University of Washington JOSEPH A. BURNS,* Cornell University JOHN J. DONEGAN, John Donegan Associates, Inc. ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan DANIEL J. FINK, D.J. Fink Associates, Inc. MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute RONALD GREELEY, Arizona State University BILL GREEN, former member, U.S. House of Representatives HAROLD J. GUY,* University of California, San Diego NOEL W. HINNERS, Lockheed Martin Astronautics JANET G. LUHMANN, University of California, Berkeley JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas, Arlington ROBERTA BALSTAD MILLER, Consortium for International Earth Sciences Information Networks BERRIEN MOORE III, University of New Hampshire MARY JANE OSBORN, University of Connecticut Health Center SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University CARLÉ M. PIETERS, Brown University JUDITH PIPHER,* University of Rochester MARCIA J. RIEKE, University of Arizona ROLAND SCHMITT, Clifton Park, New York JOHN A. SIMPSON, University of Chicago ARTHUR B.C. WALKER, JR.,* Stanford University ROBERT E. WILLIAMS, Space Telescope Science Institute MARC S. ALLEN, Director *Former member. COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, North Bethesda, Maryland JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College

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Space Studies Board SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory KEN KENNEDY, Rice University THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute for Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota LEON T. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, The MITRE Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director . Terms of Use and Privacy Statement