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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration Appendix Missions Mentioned in This Report Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) A U.S.-German-U.K. program that used three satellites to conduct active experiments in the solar wind and determine the sources of magnetospheric particles. All three spacecraft were launched in August 1984. REPORT MENU Artemis NOTICE MEMBERSHIP PREFACE A series of small, low-cost, robotic lunar landers designed, as a part of the EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Bush Administration's Space Exploration Initiative, to conduct research CHAPTER 1 enabling the return of astronauts to the Moon. See Lunar Scout. CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 Cassini CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 APPENDIX A very large Saturn orbiter scheduled for launch in October 1997. Upon arrival at Saturn in 2004, it will deploy the European Space Agency's Huygens Titan atmospheric probe and will conduct complex, multidisciplinary observations of the planet's atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, and satellites. See Huygens. Challenger The space shuttle destroyed during launch in January 1986. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (1 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix Clark One of a pair of small, low-cost Earth observation satellites scheduled for launch in 1996. See Lewis. Clementine A technology demonstration mission launched by the Department of Defense's Ballistic Missile Defense Organization in January 1994. The mission mapped the entire Moon but failed before flying by asteroid 1620 Geographos. Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) A proposed 8-year mission designed to rendezvous with a comet and accompany it for many months, and to make a close-up flyby of one or more asteroids. Difficulties encountered during the preparation of the FY 1993 budget forced NASA to cancel CRAF. Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer (COBE) A NASA science mission, launched in November 1989 and operational until December 1993, that addressed basic questions about the temperature, spectrum, and isotropy of the cosmic background radiation. Discovery A line of small planetary missions characterized by a 3-year development schedule and a budget cap of $150 million (FY 1992). Mars Pathfinder and Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), the first two Discovery missions, were granted new starts in NASA's FY 1994 budget. Earth Probes A proposed line of small, low-cost Earth observation satellites. See TOMS, TRMM. Explorer A continuing line of moderate-cost astrophysics/space physics missions that includes the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, the International Ultraviolet Explorer, and the Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (2 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix A NASA astrophysics mission, launched in June 1992 into a near-Earth orbit to survey the sky in the 100- to 912-angstrom spectral region. Galileo A very large Jupiter orbiter, launched aboard the space shuttle Atlantis in October 1989. When it reaches Jupiter in December 1995, it will deploy an atmospheric entry probe and then conduct complex, multidisciplinary observations of the planet's atmosphere, rings, magnetosphere, and satellites. Giotto The European Space Agency launched this spacecraft in July 1985 on a trajectory that enabled it to perform a fast flyby of the nucleus of Halley's comet in March 1986. Although severely damaged during the encounter, the spacecraft was later reactivated and performed a close flyby of the nucleus of comet Grigg-Skjellerup in July 1992. Hubble Space Telescope A NASA-ESA 2.4-meter optical-ultraviolet telescope placed in low-Earth orbit by the space shuttle in April 1990. Although the telescope's primary mirror was later discovered to suffer from spherical aberration, its performance was restored by astronauts during a December 1993 servicing mission. Huygens The European Space Agency's contribution to Cassini, scheduled for launch in October 1997. The Huygens probe will conduct in situ observations of Titan's atmosphere and surface. Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) A cooperative astrophysics project involving NASA, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Following its launch in January 1983, this cryogenically cooled telescope conducted a multicolor, all-sky survey at infrared wavelengths. International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) The large astrophysics mission scheduled for launch in 2001 by the European Space Agency. Budgetary problems prevented NASA's full participation in this mission as originally planned. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (3 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) This NASA-ESA-U.K. mission was launched into a geosynchronous orbit above the Atlantic in January 1978. From this vantage point, this 40-cm telescope conducts around-the-clock spectroscopic observations of ultraviolet sources. Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) A series of missions designed to study Earth's magnetosphere and interplanetary space. The last, IMP-8, was launched in 1972. Kuiper Airborne Observatory A C-141 transport equipped with a 90-cm telescope, capable of performing observations in the infrared and submillimeter spectral regions from altitudes in excess of 12,000 meters. Lewis One of a pair of small, low-cost Earth observation satellites. See Clark. Luna A series of 24 Soviet lunar missions, beginning with a lunar flyby, launched in 1959 and concluding with a sample-return mission launched in 1976. Lunar Observer A proposed Planetary Observer that would have been assembled from spare components from Mars Observer. Originally designed to provide purely scientific information about the mineralogy and geochemistry of the lunar surface, the mission plan was later modified to include collection of data that would enable future human exploration missions. Lunar Orbiter A successful series of five lunar missions launched in 1966 and 1967. They were designed to support the Apollo program by completing a photographic survey of the Moon. Lunar Polar Orbiter A proposed robotic mission to conduct sophisticated remote-sensing observations of the Moon's surface to extend the measurements made by file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (4 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix the Apollo missions. Lunar Scout The series of small lunar missions proposed in 1990 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Lunar Scout I and H would have used low-cost instruments to map the Moon in support of future human exploration missions. See Artemis. Magellan The first shuttle-launched interplanetary spacecraft. Following its launch from Atlantis in 1989, Magellan mapped almost all of Venus's surface using synthetic aperture radar and conducted measurements of the planet's gravitational field. Mariner A series of 10 NASA planetary missions that conducted observations of Venus, Mars, and Mercury in the period from 1962 to 1975. Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter Original name of Mars Observer. Mars Observer The first and last of NASA's Planetary Observer series. It was launched in 1992 and was lost shortly before entering orbit around Mars in 1993. Mars Pathfinder Formerly known as the Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) Pathfinder, this satellite is one of the first two Discovery missions and is scheduled for launch in December 1996. The mission will consist of a lander and a surface rover. Mars Surveyor A series of NASA Mars exploration missions, beginning with the Mars Global Surveyor, scheduled for launch in November 1996. The Global Surveyor will capture martian data using five spare instruments from the Mars Observer program. The missions will continue with a subsequent series of two small missions launched every 2 years, beginning with an orbiter and a lander to be launched in 1998. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (5 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) One of the first two Discovery missions, the spacecraft is scheduled for launch in February 1996. In late December 1998, NEAR will rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros and will study the asteroid for approximately I year. Pioneer A series of 13 NASA interplanetary spacecraft launched between October 1958 and August 1978. The series began with Pioneer 1, a failed lunar orbiter, and ended with Pioneer 13 (Venus), which conducted a multiprobe study of Venus's atmosphere. Pioneers 10 and 11 made the first flybys of Jupiter (December 1973) and Saturn (September 1979), respectively. Pioneer Venus Pioneer Venus I and 2, also known as Pioneer 12 and 13, conducted extensive observations of Venus using remote-sensing techniques and atmospheric probes, respectively. Both were developed from the Planetary Explorer concept and were launched in 1978. See Planetary Explorer. Planetary Explorer A proposed line of low-cost planetary missions using a common spacecraft bus. This program evolved into Pioneer Venus. See Pioneer Venus. Planetary Observer A proposed fine of low-cost planetary missions using a bus based on a production-line Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The only mission to fly was Mars Observer. See Mars Observer. Planet-B The Japan-NASA joint mission using a spacecraft being developed by Japan's Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and scheduled for launch in August 1998. This mission, scheduled for arrival in October 1999, will investigate the neutral atmosphere of Mars for 2 years. Ranger A series of nine U.S. lunar hard landers, launched between August 1961 and March 1965. Rangers 7 through 9 successfully obtained television imagery of the lunar surface. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (6 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix Rosetta An approved European Space Agency mission, scheduled to rendezvous with a comet in the latter part of the next decade. NASA participation in this major mission centers on provision of a surface-science package. Small Explorer Program (SMEX) A continuing series of highly focused and relatively inexpensive astrophysics and space physics missions. Each spacecraft weighs approximately 500 pounds and is expected to cost approximately $50 million for design, development, and operations through the first 30 days in orbit. See SAMPEX and SWAS. Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) This mission, the first Small Explorer, was launched in July 1992. The mission has been successfully investigating the composition of local interstellar matter and solar material, as well as the transport of magnetospheric charged particles into Earth's atmosphere. Solar Mesosphere Explorer This spacecraft was launched in September 1981 to study the photochemical and transport processes associated with ozone concentrations in the upper atmosphere. The mission operations center at the University of Colorado made extensive use of student labor. Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) A Small Explorer mission designed to study interstellar molecular clouds by observing their emissions at submillimeter wavelengths. Scheduled for launch in 1995. See Small Explorer. Surveyor NASA's series of six robotic lunar landers designed to gather data in support of Apollo, launched between May 1966 and November 1967. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) A NASA instrument launched aboard Russia's Meteor-3 in August 1991 to make global measurements of atmospheric ozone. A free-flying version of this instrument will be one of the first of NASA's Earth Probes. See Earth Probes. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (7 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]

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The Role of Small Missions in Planetary and Lunar Exploration: Appendix Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) A joint NASA-Japanese mission designed to measure global tropical rainfall, scheduled for launch in August 1997. It will be one of the first of NASA's Earth Probes. See Earth Probes. Vega A pair of Soviet spacecraft that conducted observations of Venus (1985) and Halley's comet (1986). Viking A pair of landers and orbiters that conducted extensive observations of Mars, including a search for life. Voyager A pair of spacecraft launched in August and September, 1977, designed to conduct reconnaissance observations of Jupiter (1979) and Saturn (1980 and 1981). Voyager 2 also conducted flybys of both Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989). file:///C|/SSB_old_web/smlappend.html (8 of 9) [6/18/2004 1:49:06 PM]