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Space Studies Board Annual Report-1994 (From the Chair) Space Studies Board Annual Report—1994 From the Chair The total expenditure for space research constitutes a significant fraction of the government's investment in research and development. The Space Studies Board is chartered to provide independent advice to NASA and other federal agencies on the conduct of that research. To be effective, the Board, like any financial investment advisor, must give guidance for the short term as well as the long term. Scientific strategies, opportunities studies, and assessments are the Board's traditional instruments for providing long-term guidance. But the rate of change in the space program and throughout government accelerated through 1994 from its already fast pace the year before, placing ever increasing importance on the shorter time scales. The Board and, indeed, the entire National Research Council are attempting to address this REPORT MENU urgency in ways that fulfill their charters and that neither compromise the quality NOTICE of the product nor deliver it too late to be of use. FROM THE CHAIR CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 In times of rapid change, having clearly defined long-term goals and CHAPTER 3 priorities is every bit as important as it is during calmer periods. The Board's CHAPTER 4 Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration issued the report An Integrated CHAPTER 5 Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010, which serves just that purpose APPENDIX A.1 for a major area of space research. It lays out the scientific context and sets APPENDIX A.2 priorities by considering scientific importance and the likelihood of significant APPENDIX A.3 scientific advance together with the likelihood that the necessary measurements can be carried out in the foreseeable future. This last consideration recognizes both technical and budgetary realities, as it must. The second report of the Board's Committee on Human Exploration, Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space, gives a broad overview of scientific opportunities offered by programs of human exploration of the Moon and Mars that might be undertaken for primarily nonscientific reasons. While such programs seem to have slipped off the current national agenda, the vision of eventual human exploration beyond low Earth orbit has not. The report stands as a resource for policymakers who rediscover that vision. The Board's Committee on Solar and Space Physics and its federated partner Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research have addressed file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an94chr.htm (1 of 4) [6/18/2004 10:40:16 AM]

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Space Studies Board Annual Report-1994 (From the Chair) the dichotomy between funding and effectiveness in their report A Space Physics Paradox. This is a case study of the factors that contribute to the scientific vitality of a discipline, particularly the mix and frequency of large and small space missions. Like any specific case study in history or management, it illuminates issues and makes recommendations that may be equally important in other disciplines. The federated committees performed a study for the NRC's Naval Studies Board entitled ONR [Office of Naval Research] Research Opportunities in Upper Atmospheric Sciences. The Board itself relies heavily on its own long-term strategies and opportunities reports when it responds to the increasingly urgent requests from federal agencies for short-term advice. In 1994, as NASA consolidated the space station redesign activities, the Board and its Committees on Space Biology and Medicine and on Microgravity Research issued two short reports dealing with aspects of scientific utilization of the station. These efforts continue a decade- long commitment to helping NASA deal with scientific aspects of this vast program that is driven primarily by complex political, socioeconomic, and diplomatic considerations. A short report by the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics provides an assessment of the scientific capability of two infrared astrophysics missions that for budgetary reasons had been considerably reduced in scope by NASA and the scientific community. And the Board issued a short review of its previous recommendations on an x-ray observatory and an interplanetary probe that were being considered for cancellation. Of course, the Board and its committees spent most of 1994 on studies and reports that will appear in 1995 or even 1996. These cover the full range of space research disciplines and address both short- and long-term concerns. Responding to direction from Congress and NASA, the Board initiated a major activity that transcends specific disciplines, the so-called study on the Future of Space Science. It addresses three exceedingly difficult questions that are central to the conduct of space science: alternatives for the organization of space research, methods for establishing scientific priorities, and technology utilization for space science missions. The activities of three task groups and a steering group, in close interaction with the full Board, were well under way by year's end. 1994 was also a year of major transition for the Board itself. After six years of dedicated service, Louis J. Lanzerotti rose from the chair. Tributes to his leadership were delivered at the 113th meeting in July by Board members and staff, and by the NRC. NASA bestowed its highest honor, the Distinguished Public Service Medal. This award and the naming of minor planet 5504 Lanzerotti are lasting tributes that properly recognize Lou's lasting contributions to space research, contributions that even the extensive cumulative bibliography listed in this report captures only in part. Lou leaves behind a very high standard for me, the Board, and its committees, but he also leaves behind the tools: an admirable ethos, effective practices and procedures, and a superb staff. The entire space research community owes him a debt of gratitude for all he has done. Great changes are sweeping across NASA and other federal agencies file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an94chr.htm (2 of 4) [6/18/2004 10:40:16 AM]

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Space Studies Board Annual Report-1994 (From the Chair) today. The Board is responding to these changes in its many projects, both in the near and long term. Over 35 years, space research has given much to the nation that is practical and ennobling, and we are confident that it will continue to provide excellent value in basic knowledge, technology, and inspiration. The Board looks forward to continuing its work with NASA, NOAA, and the Department of Defense to assure an optimum return on the nation's space research investment in the years ahead. Claude R. Canizares Chair Space Studies Board April 1995 Last update 8/25/00 at 8:23 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an94chr.htm (3 of 4) [6/18/2004 10:40:16 AM]

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Space Studies Board Annual Report-1994 (From the Chair) The National Academies Current Projects Publications Directories Search Site Map Feedback file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an94chr.htm (4 of 4) [6/18/2004 10:40:16 AM]