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Improving NASA's Technology for Space Science (Notice) Improving NASA's Technology for Space Science NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. REPORT MENU The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the NOTICE charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of MEMBERSHIP outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection PREFACE of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility EXECUTIVE SUMMARY for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also CHAPTER 1 sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages CHAPTER 2 education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. CHAPTER 3 Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. CHAPTER 4 ACRONYMS The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National BIOGRAPHIES Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate BIBLIOGRAPHY professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the APPENDIX A public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy APPENDIX B of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal APPENDIX C government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, APPENDIX D research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of APPENDIX E Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology file:///C|/SSB_old_web/nasatechnotice.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 11:37:44 AM]

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Improving NASA's Technology for Space Science (Notice) with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by Contracts NASW-4003 and 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-83194 Available in limited supply from The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and The Space Studies Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/nasatechnotice.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 11:37:44 AM]