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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html SPACE Space Studies Board Washington, D.C. 1993 National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Committee on Human Exploration Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SCIENTIFIC PREREQUISITES FOR Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications 3

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html 4 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Cover: Mars mosaic image courtesy of Alfred McEwen of the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona. Lunar crescent image courtesy of Dennis di Cicco. Cover design by Penny Margolskee. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html 5 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. COMMITTEE ON HUMAN EXPLORATION NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications Company, Chair RICHARD L. GARWIN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories ELLIOTT C. LEVINTHAL, Stanford University WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University ROBERT H. MOSER, University of New Mexico GEORGE DRIVER NELSON, University of Washington SALLY K. RIDE,* California Space Institute Staff DAVID H. SMITH, Executive Secretary BOYCE N. AGNEW, Administrative Assistant * Former committee member who participated in writing this report. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html 6 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. SPACE STUDIES BOARD LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Chair JOSEPH A. BURNS, Cornell University ANDREA K. DUPREE,* Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOHN A. DUTTON, Pennsylvania State University LARRY ESPOSITO,* University of Colorado JAMES P. FERRIS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HERBERT FRIEDMAN, Naval Research Laboratory RICHARD L. GARWIN,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center RICCARDO GIACCONI, European Southern Observatory NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications Company JAMES R. HOUCK,* Cornell University DAVID A. LANDGREBE, Purdue University ROBERT A. LAUDISE, AT&T Bell Laboratories RICHARD S. LINDZEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas, Arlington WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University RICHARD K. MOORE,* University of Kansas ROBERT H. MOSER, University of New Mexico NORMAN F. NESS, University of Delaware MARCIA NEUGEBAUER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory MARK SETTLE, ARCO Oil Company WILLIAM A. SIRIGNANO, University of California, Irvine FRED W. TUREK, Northwestern University ARTHUR B.C. WALKER, Stanford University MARC S. ALLEN, Director * Term ended during 1992. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html 7 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation PETER J. BICKEL, University of California, Berkeley GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University GEORGE W. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARYE ANNE FOX, University of Texas, Austin AVNER FRIEDMAN, University of Minnesota SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California, Berkeley NEAL F. LANE, Rice University ROBERT W. LUCKY, Bell Communications Research CLAIRE E. MAX, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California, Berkeley JAMES W. MITCHELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science ALAN SCHRIESHEIM, Argonne National Laboratory A. RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado KENNETH G. WILSON, Ohio State University NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html PREFACE 9 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Preface For the past 20 years, the future directions of the U.S. program of human spaceflight have been a matter of discussion, debate, and controversy within and among the government, industry, the scientific community, and the public. Many advocates of human space exploration now agree that the next steps in piloted flight after Space Station Freedom involve returning to the Moon and, eventually, voyaging to Mars. The space science community, however, is agreed that there is no a priori scientific requirement for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. This view is reflected in Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988), a report prepared by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, which stated that ''the ultimate decision to undertake further voyages of human exploration and to begin the process of expanding human activities into the solar system must be based on nontechnical factors.'' In that light it is proper to ask, then, what is a proper role for the scientific community in any program of human exploration? Well before a human exploration program is implemented, the U.S. scientific community must involve itself by providing the scientific advice and participation necessary for enabling human exploration. Then, because virtually all mission concepts for human exploration incorporate scientific research as a major goal, it is incumbent on the research community to study how it should respond to the opportunities enabled by the existence of human exploration. The time to do that is now, for it is during the Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html PREFACE 10 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. conceptualization and initial development of exploration programs that the research community has its greatest opportunity to shape the relevant political, technical, and scientific decisions. Such participation is responsive to the finding enunciated in the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1990), that science is "the fulcrum of the entire space effort." Since its establishment in 1958, the Space Studies Board (SSB; formerly the Space Science Board) has been the principal nongovernmental advisory body on civil space research in the United States. In this capacity, the board established the Committee on Human Exploration (CHEX) to examine many of the science and science-policy matters concerned with the return of astronauts to the Moon and eventual voyages to Mars. The Board asked CHEX to consider three major questions: 1. What scientific knowledge must be obtained as a prerequisite for prolonged human space missions? 2. What scientific opportunities might derive from prolonged human space missions? 3. What basic principles should guide the management of both the prerequisite science activities necessary to enable human exploration and the scientific activities that may be carried out in conjunction with human exploration? This report focuses on the first of these topics. Reports concerning the second and third topics are in their final stages of preparation and will be available in the near future. The Space Studies Board and CHEX concluded that the existing research strategies of several of its discipline committees form a solid basis for determining the scientific research necessary to enable future voyages by humans to the Moon and Mars. To establish a context for its study, however, CHEX first examined the scientific aspects of various Moon/Mars mission concepts and determined the appropriate role of science in a program of human exploration. Having laid this foundation, CHEX then evaluated and integrated the enabling requirements for human exploration contained in the strategy documents of relevant SSB committees. (The details of the individual scientific strategies and the goals of these SSB committees are, however, not repeated in this report—they may be found in the original strategy documents listed in the bibliography.) These requirements were then classified according to their relevance to basic human survival and optimum mission performance. Information on the conditions necessary to maintain the well-being of humans in space was provided by the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. Requirements for data on the properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces and exobiology, needed for basic mission operations and sci Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html PREFACE 11 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. ence research, were supplied by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. A Strategy for the Scientific Exploration of Mars (NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1991), a report written by NASA's Mars Science Working Group, was consulted for additional information on the planetological and exobiological aspects of Mars precursor science. The space radiation environment, including its characterization and predictability, is the responsibility of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research. Advice on some technological issues was provided by the Committee on Microgravity Research. Full membership lists for these Space Studies Board discipline committees appear in the appendix. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html CONTENTS 13 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Contents Executive Summary 1 The Role of Science 2 Enabling Science 3 Critical Research Issues 3 Optimal Performance Issues 4 References 4 1 Introduction 6 The Human Exploration of Space 6 Science and the Human Exploration of Space 8 Enabling Science 10 Space Station Freedom 13 International Consultation and Collaboration 13 Notes and References 14 2 Critical Research Requirements 15 Radiation 17 Radiation Levels 17 Sources of Hazardous Radiation 18 Galactic Cosmic Radiation 18 Solar Energetic Particles 20 Relevant Measurements and Research 22 Bone Degeneration and Muscle Atrophy 24 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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The Human Exploration of Space http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6058.html CONTENTS 14 original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Function 26 Behavior, Performance, and Human Factors 28 Individual Factors 28 Group Factors 29 Environmental Factors 29 Biological Issues 30 Notes and References 31 3 Research for Mission Optimization 33 Sensorimotor Integration 33 Immunology 34 Developmental Biology 36 Life Support Systems 37 Micrometeoroid Flux on the Moon 38 Surface and Subsurface Properties 38 Potential Martian Hazards 40 Aerobraking at Mars 42 Microgravity Science and Technology 43 Exobiology Issues 43 Resource Utilization 44 Notes and References 45 4 Conclusions 46 Bibliography 48 Appendix 51 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.