Click for next page ( 7


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) Space Studies Board Annual Report—1992 2 Activities and Membership During 1992, the Space Studies Board and its twelve committees and task groups gathered for a total of 33 meetings. Three full-length, formal reports were issued, and status assessments were carried out for a number of approved or proposed planetary exploration missions. Letter reports were released on planning for NOAA long-term operational satellites and for DOE facilities used for space radiation research. Since a number of long-term discipline research strategies are becoming obsolete, several committees began work on new strategies. Updated strategies were initiated for solar and space physics and for planetary exploration. After release of its first formal report, a discipline status survey, the Board's new microgravity sciences committee began work on an inaugural research strategy of its own. The following sections present highlights of the meetings of the Board and REPORT MENU its committees during 1992. Formal reports and letter reports developed, NOTICE approved, and released during these meetings are referenced by the section FROM THE CHAIR number of this annual report where their summaries are reprinted (in the case of CHAPTER 1 full-length reports) or they are reproduced in full (in the case of letter reports). CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 SPACE STUDIES BOARD The Space Studies Board met four times during 1992, in February, June, August, and November. Between meetings, the Executive Committee of the Board, composed of members of the Board, met several times by teleconference and in person. In the first meeting of the year, the Executive Committee met on January 13 to act on a number of issues. These included Board appointments; an agenda for the forthcoming February Board meeting; and planning for activities of the Committee on Human Exploration, the Joint Committee on Technology, and the new Committee on International Programs. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (1 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) The full Board held its 105th meeting, the first during 1992, on February 26-28 in Washington, D.C. Members heard about research results of the previous year's Space Life Sciences (SLS-1) shuttle mission and were briefed by officials of the Space Station Freedom office on station program progress, including current plans for the life sciences centrifuge and associated equipment. A major portion of the meeting was devoted to a series of briefings by NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), NASA Legislative Affairs, and the Congressional Budget Office on the budget outlook for space research. This outlook was far from encouraging. NASA was seeking a 4.7% increase for FY93, but contemporary remarks by Congressman Robert Traxler, chair of the House appropriations subcommittee with jurisdiction over NASA, had indicated that this would be hard to attain. The likelihood was (correctly) foreseen that the $500 million (in FY93 alone) shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor might be reinstated without a corresponding increase in the total NASA budget. In the meantime, it was clear that orderly progress on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Cassini, and Earth Observation System (EOS) programs would require significant increases by mid-decade. At the meeting, the Board approved the final report of its Task Group on Planetary Protection (summarized in Section 3.3). Board members also approved a scientific assessment of the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini missions prepared by a special subpanel of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Prof. Peter Stone of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Board drafted an accompanying letter to the Associate Administrator for Space Science and Applications, Dr. Lennard Fisk, based on the COMPLEX assessment (both reproduced in Section 4.4). Based on the status briefing by Mr. Richard Kohrs, Director of the Space Station Freedom Program, the Board also prepared a statement on this program for the Associate Administrator for Space Systems Development, Mr. Arnold Aldrich (4.3). An additional letter (4.5) summarizing past Board and committee recommendations on AXAF was later approved by the Executive Committee of the Board and released with these other reports; the whole package was forwarded to NASA Administrator Richard Truly under a general cover letter (4.2). Many of the Board's committees met during the second quarter of 1992, against the backdrop of a very unsettled space research world. Authorizing subcommittees of both houses of Congress marked up their bills, which were very different in structure and funding. An amendment on the floor of the House to delete the space station was defeated after a passionate debate. Interest in acquiring or sharing capabilities of the space program of the former Soviet Union grew both there and in the United States, and the European space program evolved significantly. The appropriations outlook for the U.S. space program remained poor, as the Congress faced more financing needs than it could fully meet. In the meantime, a new NASA administrator was appointed, Mr. Daniel Goldin, who established agency-wide blue and red team reviews directed at improving the quality and efficiency of programs under way. Restructuring of the file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (2 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) Cassini and AXAF missions, begun in 1991 to reduce their funding requirements, continued. The second 1992 meeting of the Board (its 106th) took place on June 1-3 at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Most of the first day was spent on committee business, including review and provisional approval of a number of submitted reports. The Board discussed and approved, pending revisions, a number of letter reports. Two of these, prepared by COMPLEX, assessed the scientific merit of the NASA Office of Exploration robotic lunar precursor missions (4.8) and of SDIO's Clementine Moon/asteroid mission (4.9). A third letter report (4.7), submitted by the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, discussed the importance of continued operation of the Department of Energy's BEVALAC facility to space radiation biology research. These letter reports were discussed by the Board and received tentative approval, subject to indicated revisions. On the second day of the meeting, NASA officials briefed members on preliminary results of the AXAF restructuring exercise nearing completion, and on the status of the microgravity research program. These briefings were followed by tours of the MSFC AXAF calibration facility and Space Science Laboratory. The Space Studies Board met for its 107th meeting on August 28-29 at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. This one-and-a-half-day meeting was chiefly devoted to committee business, including discussion of plans for initiation of the new Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, to be operated jointly with the NRC's Board on Physics and Astronomy. The Board reviewed its international program, with several members planning to attend the September 1992 meeting of the European Space Science Committee (ESSC). During lunch on the first day of the meeting, the Board heard luncheon remarks by NASA Administrator Goldin on the red and blue team reviews in progress and on his goals for the agency. This talk was followed by a briefing by Dr. Fisk of OSSA on the status of the space science and applications program. The Board later reviewed a second COMPLEX letter report (4.10) on the Cassini program, this time considering the capabilities of the restructured mission (CRAF canceled and Cassini redesigned), and returned the report to the committee with provisional approval and directions for revision and augmentation. Several significant events occurred between the August and late November Board meetings: the conference appropriation bill for NASA and related agencies was passed by the Congress and signed by the President on October 5, and Administrator Goldin announced sweeping changes in NASA's organization on October 15. The final appropriation for NASA conformed largely to expectations from the debate and legislative activity earlier during the year. In the end, NASA received a total of $14,330 million, which was $663 million less than the President's FY93 request, but only $4 million less than the FY92 appropriation. OSSA, on the other hand, experienced funding growth of $127 million over the FY92 level (about a 4.7% increase). While less than hoped for in the President's request, OSSA's appropriated amount was expected to enable forward progress file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (3 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) on major research missions such as Cassini, AXAF, and EOS, with some reductions in scope and capability to each of these programs. The CRAF mission remained terminated, as provided in the President's budget request. While the implications of the FY93 appropriation could be fairly well understood in October, the consequences of Administrator Goldin's reorganization were less apparent. The major provision of the reorganization affecting space research was the fragmentation of OSSA and the reassignment of Dr. Fisk, its director, to the position of NASA Chief Scientist. The Earth Science and Applications Division was elevated to become the Office of Mission to Planet Earth; the Solar System Exploration Division, Astrophysics Division, and Space Physics Division were gathered into a new Office of Planetary Science and Astrophysics; and the Life Sciences Division and the Microgravity Science and Applications Division remained unassigned for the moment. In view of its charter to provide long-term strategic research advice to the whole of NASA's science and applications portfolio, the Board had a keen interest in both the administrator's reasons for these sweeping changes and the effects they were likely to have on initiation and execution of space research missions. In response to these developments, the Executive Committee of the Board held a teleconference on November 5 to set the agenda for the Board meeting planned for mid-November. The Executive Committee resolved to invite Mr. Goldin to present the reorganization and his views at the meeting, and also to solicit Dr. Fisk's perspectives as well. The committee met again informally on November 17 to review what had become known about the reorganization and to assemble specific issues for discussion with the administrator at the Board meeting the following day. The Space Studies Board held its last meeting of 1992, its 108th, at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 18-20. The agenda for the meeting included committee reports and approvals, consideration of broad policy issues, and discussion of Board plans for 1993. Highlights of the meeting were briefings by Administrator Goldin (in person) and a teleconference with Dr. Fisk. Mr. Goldin gave a broad perspective on his motivations for the reorganization and fielded questions from the members on a variety of space research-related concerns. Dr. Fisk added clarifications in a number of areas the following day via teleconference. In other activities at the meeting, the Board was briefed by Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research Chair Donald Williams about the results of the joint study by that committee and the Board's Committee on Solar and Space Physics on trends in research support. In subsequent discussion, the Board approved both a new charge for the Committee on Earth Studies and the Phase 2 report of the Committee on Human Exploration, which describes science objectives that could be enabled or materially enhanced by a human exploration program. The Board was privileged to hear from three members of the ESSC, Drs. Heinrich Všlk, Herb Schnopper, and Fran•ois Becker, who discussed their committee's status and plans, with emphasis on their recent report on satellite Earth observation. The Board viewed several videos on NASA spinoffs into medical file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (4 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) technology, heard an analysis of last summer's workshop by the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research, and approved the Board's 1993 Operating Plan. Membership of the Space Studies Board Louis J. Lanzerotti,§ AT&T Bell Laboratories (chair) Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University Andrea K. Dupree,* Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics John A. Dutton, Pennsylvania State University Anthony W. England, University of Michigan Larry W. Esposito,* University of Colorado James P. Ferris, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Herbert Friedman, Naval Research Laboratory Richard L. Garwin,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Riccardo Giacconi, European Southern Observatory Noel W. Hinners,§ Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications Company James R. Houck,* Cornell University David A. Landgrebe, Purdue University Robert A. Laudise, AT&T Bell Laboratories Richard S. Lindzen,§ Massachusetts Institute of Technology John H. McElroy, University of Texas at Arlington William J. Merrell, Jr., Texas A&M University Richard K. Moore,* University of Kansas Robert H. Moser, University of New Mexico Norman F. Ness,§ University of Delaware Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Simon Ostrach, Case Western Reserve University Carle M. Pieters,§ Brown University Mark Settle, ARCO Oil and Gas Company William A. Sirignano, University of California at Irvine John W. Townsend, Jr., NASA (retired) Fred Turek, Northwestern University Arthur B.C. Walker, Stanford University Duane T. McRuer, Systems Technology, Inc. (ex officio) Donald J. Williams, Johns Hopkins University (ex officio) Marc S. Allen, Director Betty C. Guyot, Administrative Officer ___________________________ *term expired during 1992 §member of the Executive Committee COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS Committee on International Programs (CIP) Chair William Merrell led a file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (5 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) delegation consisting of Committee on Earth Studies Chair John McElroy and Board Director Marc Allen to the European Space Science Committee (ESSC) meeting in Budapest on September 23-24. Among other actions, the ESSC heard a briefing on the European Space Agency (ESA) science program and approved a draft report by its subpanel, the European Earth Observation Panel. This report was subsequently published as A Strategy for Earth Observation from Space (European Science Foundation, September 1992). Board attendees at the Budapest meeting discussed ways to better coordinate advisory work between the U.S. and European committees. Through the efforts of Board member and U.S. COSPAR Vice President Herbert Friedman, and staff member and U.S. COSPAR Executive Secretary Richard Hart, the Board continued its active participation in international COSPAR activities. The Cospar Bureau met on August 27 and September 4; the COSPAR Executive Council met on August 28 and September 5. Most of the activities during the year were dedicated to organizing the 1992 plenary meeting that was held in Washington, D.C., from August 28 to September 5 in conjunction with the meeting of the International Astronautical Federation. This joint meeting was known as the World Space Congress—a major event of the International Space Year. The congress was attended by over 5000 participants, representing 65 countries. In addition, 135 organizations participated in the exhibit—the largest ever for a COSPAR meeting. At the congress, a new COSPAR charter and bylaws were approved by COSPAR. If approved by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), they will go into effect in 1994. The most important change is that, beginning in 1994, all officers will be elected from a slate prepared by a nominating committee. While COSPAR appears to be in a sound state at present, there are uncertainties for the near future given recent changes in the world. It is not clear that all of the member nations will be able to continue to pay their national contributions. On the other hand, there may be several new members of COSPAR in the near future: both the People's Republic of China and China Taipei seem to be seriously interested; Korea has recently launched a satellite; and a number of the new independent republics of the former Soviet Union are considering joining. CIP Membership William J. Merrell, Jr., Texas A&M University (chair) Herbert Friedman, Naval Research Laboratory James R. Houck,* Cornell University Richard C. Hart, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (6 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) JOINT COMMITTEE ON TECHNOLOGY FOR SPACE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS The Joint Committee on Technology (JCT) for Space Science and Applications, a collaborative effort between the Board and the NRC's Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, held a week-long workshop in June in Annapolis, Maryland. The workshop, which was chaired by Dr. John McElroy, reviewed NASA plans for developing new space technologies in support of future science and applications programs. Twenty-six scientists and engineers met to receive briefings from representatives of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) and OSSA. A report summarizing the findings of the workshop was prepared and is expected to be released in early 1993. The committee also considered candidate topics for future workshops. JCT Membership David A. Landgrebe, Purdue University (co-chair) John M. Hedgepeth,§ consultant, Santa Barbara (co-chair) John H. McElroy,* University of Texas at Arlington (workshop chair) Andrea K. Dupree,* Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Duane T. McRuer,§ Systems Technology, Inc. Franklin K. Moore,§ Cornell University Richard K. Moore,* University of Kansas Richard C. Hart, Executive Secretary Noel E. Eldridge, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 §member, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS and TASK GROUP ON AXAF After a hiatus of over four years, astronomy and astrophysics returned to committee status within the Space Studies Board. The NRC determined that a unified space and ground astronomy committee is the best approach to continuing advisory oversight of these disciplines. Establishment of the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA), a new joint activity of the Board and the NRC's Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), was formally approved by the NRC Governing Board in May 1992. The CAA will cover ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics and will be the NRC's advisory body for these disciplines. A letter signed by Board Chair Louis Lanzerotti and file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (7 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) BPA Chair Frank Drake was sent out to solicit suggestions for CAA nominees, and returned over 100 nominations. Prof. Marc Davis agreed to chair the committee. Other appointments were finalized, and the committee will meet in January 1993. Additional support and sponsorship for the joint committee are being sought from the National Science Foundation. Simultaneously, the Space Studies Board initiated a Task Group on AXAF (TGA), chaired by Prof. Arthur Davidsen. Anticipating a need for rapid NRC review of the science responsiveness of the restructured AXAF, task group members were appointed and a meeting planned to prepare a letter report. The TGA solicited and received comments from the x-ray astronomy community and held several planning teleconferences. The committee subsequently met on December 10-11, 1992, to review and evaluate the restructured AXAF mission. Participants included NASA managers and head scientists, as well as a number of principal investigators for the mission. The TGA considered whether the restructuring met the scientific rationale as envisioned in previous reports from the Space Studies Board and from NRC astronomy survey committees. The final TGA-approved draft is expected to be ready for Board and NRC review in February 1993. The target delivery date for the letter report is early 1993. CAA Membership Marc Davis, University of California at Berkeley (chair) Arthur F. Davidsen, Johns Hopkins University Sandra M. Faber, Lick Observatory Holland C. Ford, Space Telescope Science Institute Jonathan E. Grindlay, Harvard University Doyal A. Harper, Jr., Yerkes Observatory Kenneth I. Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Richard A. McCray, Joint Institute Laboratory for Astrophysics Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory Bernard Sadoulet, University of California at Berkeley Robert L. Riemer, Executive Secretary TGA Membership Arthur F. Davidsen, Johns Hopkins University (chair) David W. Arnett, University of Arizona Hale Bradt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Anne P. Cowley, Arizona State University Paul Gorenstein, Smithsonian Institution Steven M. Kahn, University of California at Berkeley James D. Kurfess, Naval Research Laboratory Robert L. Riemer, Executive Secretary file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (8 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) COMMITTEE ON EARTH STUDIES The Committee on Earth Studies (CES) met on February 10-12 to consider NOAA's requirements for future polar-orbiting operational environmental satellites. Based on briefings by NOAA managers and committee deliberations, CES prepared a letter report (4.6) containing recommendations for strengthening this planning document. The committee was also updated on NASA earth studies programs, including EOS. On June 17-19, CES met in Washington, primarily to consider the role of satellite measurements in numerical modeling. A number of briefers from research and operational centers described the use of these data and the impact of improvements in collected data on model outputs. Members heard about the status of NOAA programs from Mr. Russell Koffler and about NASA Earth observing programs from Dr. Shelby Tilford, and witnessed a demonstration of microcomputer-based ground station technology. Members of the committee also discussed the Landsat program. The committee's final meeting of the year was held November 16-17 at the Beckman Center. In preparation for defining its next major task, briefings were heard about a wide range of Earth remote sensing proposals and programs of the U.S. Air Force, Sandia National Laboratories, DOE, NOAA, and NASA. Recent management changes at NASA Headquarters and their effects on the earth science and applications program were discussed. The committee heard a presentation on the purpose, status, and goals of the congressionally mandated Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) and discussed various options for its next major task. The resulting proposal, which was submitted to the Board and approved at its November meeting, provides for the committee to update its report, Assessment of Satellite Earth Observation Programs—1991, and to conduct a study identifying critical issues in U.S. earth sciences and applications programs. CES Membership John H. McElroy, University of Texas at Arlington (chair) George Born, University of Colorado Janet Campbell, Bigelow Laboratories Dudley Chelton, Jr., Oregon State University Charles Elachi,* Jet Propulsion Laboratory William J. Emery,* University of Colorado Diana Freckman, University of California at Riverside Richard E. Hallgren,* American Meteorological Society Kenneth Jezek, Ohio State University Edward Kanemasu, University of Georgia Vytautas (Victor) Klemas,* University of Delaware Richard Kott, consultant, Fort Washington, Maryland Conway Leovy, University of Washington John MacDonald, MacDonald-Dettwiler Associates file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (9 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) Alfredo E. Prelat,* Texaco Corporation Clark Wilson, University of Texas at Austin Joyce M. Purcell, Executive Secretary David H. Smith, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 COMMITTEE ON HUMAN EXPLORATION The Committee on Human Exploration (CHEX) met on January 21-22 in Denver to discuss plans for a study on alternative approaches to science management within human spaceflight programs. At this meeting, the committee was briefed on current planning by representatives from NASA's Space Station Freedom and Exploration offices. The committee met again for a summer workshop at the Academy's Woods Hole Center on July 6-10. Members continued work on the science management report, making good progress. CHEX met at the Academy's Foundry facility in Washington on October 22-23 to complete its second report, Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space, and to continue work on the science management report. The major action taken to finish the science opportunities report was to ensure that the scientific activities singled out by the Board's collaborating discipline committees as those especially enabled by a human exploration program were consistent with a series of general guidelines for scientific participation in human exploration developed in the committee's first, and completed, report on the science that must be done to enable a program of extended human spaceflight. A draft of the Opportunities report was submitted to the Board for approval at its November meeting in Irvine, on November 18-20, and was approved pending minor changes. The report was revised by the committee and forwarded to the Board's Executive Committee, which gave final approval in December. The committee's first report, Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, is expected to go to the printer in February. The science management report should be completed early in 1993. CHEX Membership Noel W. Hinners, Martin Marietta Civil Space and Communications Company (chair) Richard L. Garwin,* IBM Corporation Louis J. Lanzerotti, AT&T Bell Laboratories Elliott C. Levinthal, Stanford University William J. Merrell, Jr., Texas A&M University Robert H. Moser, University of New Mexico file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (10 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) John E. Naugle, consultant, North Falmouth, Massachusetts George D. Nelson,* University of Washington Marcia S. Smith, Congressional Research Service Gerald J. Wasserburg, California Institute of Technology David H. Smith, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 COMMITTEE ON MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH The Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) met February 24-25 to continue work on its new strategy for microgravity science. The strategy will be a long-range, comprehensive science road map to help guide NASA's future research in the field. The CMGR intends to make an initial presentation of the strategy report to the Board in February 1993. The committee also reviewed microgravity applications activities of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs. At a subsequent meeting at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 20-21, members reviewed the microgravity activities and facilities at the center and continued work on their strategy for microgravity research. The committee met again on July 21-22, September 21-22, and November 16-17, 1992, to work on the strategy report. In addition, at the November meeting, the committee considered NASA's plans for the space station centrifuge facility. CMGR Membership William A. Sirignano, University of California at Irvine (chair) Robert A. Brown,* Massachusetts Institute of Technology Howard M. Einspahr, The Upjohn Company Martin E. Glicksman, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Franklin D. Lemkey, United Technologies Research Center Ronald E. Loehman, Sandia National Laboratories Alexander McPherson, University of California at Riverside Simon Ostrach, Case Western Reserve University Morton B. Panish, AT&T Bell Laboratories John D. Reppy, Cornell University Thomas A. Steitz,* Yale University Warren C. Strahle, Georgia Institute of Technology Julia R. Weertman, Northwestern University Richard C. Hart, Executive Secretary file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (11 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) __________________________ *term expired during 1992 COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) held a major meeting on February 18-21 at the Beckman Center. The first two days were devoted to briefings on, and a scientific review of, the baseline (pre- restructure, but after deletion of the penetrator) CRAF and Cassini missions. The results of this review were documented in an assessment letter report (4.4) and later released by the Board. The second part of the meeting was devoted to planning for an integrated solar system research strategy to be developed by the committee over the next two years. The committee met again in Washington on April 27-28. Members were briefed by SDIO and NASA officials on the joint Clementine Moon/asteroid mission. Members of Clementine's science working group described progress in selecting the filters for the mission instrumentation, enabling COMPLEX members to assess the potential science return in a letter report (4.9). NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Michael Griffin described payload characteristics of the Office of Exploration's proposed lunar precursor missions, which were also compared to previous COMPLEX measurement objectives. These assessments (4.8) were submitted for Board and NRC approval and released. COMPLEX members gathered again at the Beckman Center on July 13- 17 to begin work on their new project—developing a unified set of scientific priorities for the planetary sciences over the next 10-15 years. This new strategy will replace COMPLEX's existing separate strategies for the inner planets, outer planets, primitive bodies, and search for other solar systems. Rather than dividing the solar system into general regions and examining them separately, this new study will take a comprehensive look at the solar system and divide it into scientific disciplines such as planetary atmospheres, surfaces and interiors, magnetospheres, rings, dust and primitive bodies, and the formation of the solar system and the origins of life. During this July meeting, COMPLEX members also conducted a reassessment of the reconfigured Cassini mission, including the effects of the termination of CRAF, and submitted a draft report to the Space Studies Board at its August meeting. At a fourth meeting on September 21-23 at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, COMPLEX continued work on its integrated research strategy. COMPLEX received briefings on planetary magnetospheres that were omitted from the July meeting agenda because of schedule conflicts. The committee was also briefed on the status of the parallel priority-setting exercise being undertaken by the CSSP/CSTR. In addition to working on its integrated strategy, the file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (12 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) committee also tackled a number of other tasks at the September meeting. Other topics included future missions to Mercury, the use of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for planetary observations, and the results of a recent study on the mitigation of asteroid hazards. COMPLEX members toured Goddard instrument laboratories, viewed hardware being constructed for the HST repair mission, and visited the control room of the International Ultraviolet Explorer. A portion of the meeting was devoted to minor revisions to the letter report drafted in July on the restructuring of the Cassini mission; the letter (4.10) was subsequently approved and released to NASA on October 19. As part of the outreach activities for its priority-setting study, members of COMPLEX gave progress reports at a number of international scientific conferences. Prime among these was the October 13-17 meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences in Munich, Germany. In an evening session on October 15th, COMPLEX Chair Joseph Burns briefed the conference participants on the charge given to COMPLEX by the Board. He outlined events at the summer workshop in Irvine and progress the committee had made so far. Participation of a representative of the ESSC at the July meeting and the desire for additional European participation in the priority- setting study were emphasized. Following a description of the committee's plans for future meetings, Prof. Burns took questions from the audience during the limited additional time available. COMPLEX made a second progress report (similar in format to the one given in Munich) at a meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco in December. The presentation was made by COMPLEX member Prof. William Kurth. The next major outreach activity is scheduled to take place at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, in March 1993. COMPLEX Membership Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University (chair) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Alan P. Boss, Carnegie Institution of Washington Geoffrey A. Briggs, NASA Ames Research Center Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey Anita L. Cochran, University of Texas at Austin Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan James L. Elliot, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Larry W. Esposito,* University of Colorado (former chair) Peter J. Gierasch, Cornell University John F. Kerridge, University of California at Los Angeles William S. Kurth, University of Iowa Barry H. Mauk, Applied Physics Laboratory Lucy-Ann A. McFadden,* University of California at San Diego Christopher P. McKay,* NASA Ames Research Center William B. McKinnon, Washington University Duane O. Muhleman,* California Institute of Technology Norman R. Pace, Indiana University file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (13 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) Graham Ryder, Lunar and Planetary Institute Paul D. Spudis,* Lunar and Planetary Institute Peter H. Stone,* Massachusetts Institute of Technology Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University George W. Wetherill, Carnegie Institution of Washington Richard W. Zurek,* California Institute of Technology David H. Smith, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 COMMITTEE ON SPACE BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE The Committee on Space Biology and Medicine (CSBM) met on February 13-14 and heard presentations on results from the first Space Life Sciences (SLS- 1) mission, the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission, and plans for SLS-2. Committee members discussed current life sciences research issues with congressional staff and NIH officials. The committee met again on May 14-15 in Washington. In an effort to broaden its understanding of the capabilities and research potential of various former Soviet Union space facilities, such as the space station Mir and the Cosmos biosatellite series, the committee devoted a significant amount of the meeting to discussing these topics. Other items discussed were cooperative activities between NASA and NIH and long-term planning for NASA's radiation research program. The committee drafted a letter report (4.7) on the importance of continued operation of the BEVALAC facility for space radiation biology. The letter was later approved by the Board and the NRC and released. The CSBM met for a third time on September 30 and October 1, at the Beckman Center, and discussed a number of fundamental issues pertinent to the Life Sciences Division's research program, particularly peer review and the status and plans for the division's Discipline Working Groups (DWGs). More results derived from the IML-1 mission were presented and plans for SLS-2 were discussed. A substantial portion of the meeting was devoted to further discussion about use of Russian space facilities such as Mir and the Cosmos biosatellites for U.S. life sciences research. The committee also viewed and evaluated two videos describing NASA life sciences research facilities and claimed terrestrial benefits. CSBM Membership Fred W. Turek, Northwestern University (chair) Robert M. Berne,* University of Virginia at Charlottesville Robert E. Cleland, University of Washington Mary F. Dallman, University of California file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (14 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) John R. David, Harvard School of Public Health Peter Dews,* Harvard Medical School R.J. Michael Fry,* Oak Ridge National Laboratory Francis (Drew) Gaffney, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center Edward J. Goetzl,* University of California Medical School at San Francisco Marc D. Grynpas, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto Robert Helmreich, University of Texas at Austin James Lackner, Brandeis University Robert W. Mann, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Clinton T. Rubin, State University of New York at Stony Brook Fred D. Sack, Ohio State University Alan L. Schiller,* Mt. Sinai Medical Center Tom Scott,* University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Warren Sinclair, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements William Thompson,* North Carolina State University Fred Wilt, University of California at Berkeley Joyce M. Purcell, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP), which operates in a "federated" structure with the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) of the NRC's Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, met on March 16-18 at the Beckman Center to continue its study on the balance between "big" and "little" research programs within the committees' disciplines. The resulting Report on a Space Physics Paradox will address the question: Why has increased funding been accompanied by increased dissatisfaction in the research community? The federated committee planned for its new research strategy project and reviewed the status of its study on atmospheric electricity. At this meeting, the committees also prepared inputs to the CHEX science opportunities study and to the summer workshop of the Task Group on Priorities in Space Research. The federated committees met for a week in July (26-31) to finish writing the Paradox report and to begin work on the new strategy. About a dozen outside scientists were invited to attend as guests to help formulate an approach to the strategy. At a third meeting, held on October 19-21, the committees approved the Paradox report, continued work on the strategy study, reviewed relevant agency activities (NASA, NSF, NOAA, DOD), reviewed a draft report by the Panel on Solar Influences of the NRC's Committee on Global Change Research, reviewed file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (15 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) the activities of the U.S. Coordination Office for the Solar-Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP), and discussed the recent reorganizations of the National Space Science Data Center and of NASA. The Paradox report was presented to the Board at its November meeting. Subsequently, CSSP/CSTR organized a special session during the December meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco to solicit suggestions for the new research strategy. Approximately 250-300 members of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Section attended the session, and a number of contributions were received. CSSP Membership Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (chair) Thomas E. Cravens, University of Kansas Jonathan F. Ormes, Goddard Space Flight Center George K. Parks, University of Washington Douglas M. Rabin, National Optical Astronomy Observatory David M. Rust, Johns Hopkins University Raymond J. Walker, University of California at Los Angeles Yuk L. Yung, California Institute of Technology Ronald D. Zwickl, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Richard C. Hart, Executive Secretary TASK GROUP ON PLANETARY PROTECTION The Task Group on Planetary Protection (TGPP) published its report, Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommendations, in time for use at the World Space Congress' meeting of COSPAR held in Washington in late August. COSPAR has the responsibility for monitoring and updating planetary protection policy for all space-faring nations. Upon publication of its report, the task group was disbanded. TGPP Membership* Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (chair) John Baross, University of Washington Michael Carr, U.S. Geological Survey Robert Pepin, University of Minnesota Thomas Schmidt, Miami University Jodi Shann, University of Cincinnati J. Robie Vestal, University of Cincinnati David White, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Richard Young, consultant, Kennedy Space Center file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (16 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) Joyce M. Purcell, Executive Secretary ___________________________ *task group disbanded during 1992 TASK GROUP ON PRIORITIES IN SPACE RESEARCH Early in 1992, the Board published the first report from its Task Group on Priorities in Space Research (TGPSR), chaired by Board member Dr. John Dutton. This report, entitled Setting Priorities for Space Research: Opportunities and Imperatives, was released at a half-day symposium held in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Auditorium on January 24. NAS President Frank Press opened the symposium and commented on the desirability of addressing priority issues in science: "One has to do this not simply because there are budgetary constraints, but also as a means of self-examination . . . it gives the public confidence that we're going about our job right if we say to the public, who, after all pays for all of this, that we have examined and ranked our needs and opportunities." Mr. George E. Brown, Jr., chair of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, gave the keynote address. Applauding the endeavors of the task group and the Board, Mr. Brown encouraged them and the scientific community at large to provide policymakers with a best assessment of priority ordering based on "unadulterated peer-reviewed judgment of scientific merit." Board Chair Louis Lanzerotti discussed how and why the Board and the space research community should be involved in recommending priorities. These remarks were followed by an open forum in which members of the audience were asked for their views and reactions to plans for a follow-on study—development of a priority-setting methodology and evaluation criteria. In February, the Board sponsored a session on the topic of priority setting in research at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting in Chicago. Congressional interest in the topic continued, with Dr. Dutton being asked to testify in April on priorities in space research before the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee's Subcommittee on Science. During a July 27-30 workshop at Woods Hole, the task group tested and validated its model space research proposal and evaluation instrument. Outside guests, representing some of the major disciplines of space research, evaluated representative projects using the prototype proposal and evaluation instruments to gauge how effective and valid their application to actual projects would be. The task group began work on a first draft of a follow-on report, which will describe possible methods for setting priorities in space research fields and will discuss the committee's prototype instruments. The task group held a meeting on October 22-23 to discuss further the file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (17 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]

OCR for page 6
Space Studies Board Annual Report-1992 (Activities and Membership) results and implications of the Woods Hole experiment. Both the proposal questionnaire and evaluation method were modified as a result of the experiment. The group continued working on its follow-on report with the aim of completing the activity by June 1993. TGPSR Membership John A. Dutton, Pennsylvania State University (chair) Philip Abelson, American Association for the Advancement of Science William P. Bishop, Desert Research Institute Lawson Crowe, University of Colorado Peter Dews, Harvard Medical School Angelo Guastaferro, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Buddy MacKay,* Lt. Governor of Florida Thomas A. Potemra, Johns Hopkins University Arthur B.C. Walker, Stanford University Joyce M. Purcell, Executive Secretary __________________________ *term expired during 1992 Last update 8/22/00 at 10:29 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/an92ch2.htm (18 of 19) [6/18/2004 10:30:47 AM]