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B Biographical Sketches of Task Group Members KENNETH NEALSON (Chairman) is the Shaw Distinguished Professor of Biology at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, an adjunct professor of bacteriology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and associate director of the Center for Great Lakes Studies in Milwaukee, a center of excellence of the University of Wisconsin system. Before moving to Wisconsin in 1985, he was a professor of oceanography at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where he served for 12 years. During that time, he received a Guggenheim fellowship and spent 1 year on sabbatical leave in the marine chemistry department at the University of Washington in Seattle. His area of research is the biogeochemical cycling of metals in aquatic environments. He has served on two previous Space Studies Board (SSB) committees, chaired by L. Margulis and H.P. Klein. He served for 3 years as a panel member for the Exobiology Program and has been involved for over 10 years with a summer NASA research training program funded by the Biospherics Program at NASA. He has been a distinguished lecturer at 10 different U.S. universities and has been named as a distinguished lecturer of the Australian Microbiology Society for 1992. He received a B.S. in biochemistry and a Ph.D. in microbiology, both from the University of Chicago, and did postdoctoral work in biochemistry at Harvard University. JOHN BAROSS is an associate professor of oceanography at the University of Washington, Seattle, where he has been since 1985. Baross has been a member of the American Society for Microbiology committees on microbial ecology and numerical taxonomy, a member of the Theoretical, Experimental and Analytical Working Group, RIDGE (Ridge Inter-disciplinary Global Experiments), and a Scientific Advisory Board 66

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member (alternate) for the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Baross is currently a member of the Technical Advisory Panel for the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. His research interests include the ecology and physiology of hyperthermophiles from marine and terrestrial volcanic environments, the possible relationship between submarine hydrothermal vents and the origins of life, and estuarine microbial ecology. Baross received a B.S. in microbiology and chemistry from California State University at San Francisco in 1964 and a Ph.D. in marine microbiology from the University of Washington in 1973. MICHAEL CARR is a geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, California, where he as been since 1962. During the last 20 years, Carr has focused on studying Mars, particularly its volcanic and climatic history. He was a member of the Mariner-9 imaging team and leader of the Viking Orbiter imaging team. He is currently a member of the Galileo imaging team and is an interdisciplinary scientist on Mars Observer and a co-investigator on the Russian Mars-94 mission. He chairs the Mars Science Working Group that advises NASA on the strategy for future robotic exploration of Mars. Carr received a B.Sc. in geology from the University of London in 1956 and a Ph.D. from Yale University in 1960. ROBERT PEPIN is a professor of physics at the University of Minnesota, where he has been since 1965, except for a 3-year absence from 1974 to 1977 as director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (then the Lunar Science Institute) in Houston, Texas. Pepin was a member of the SSB's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) from 1983 to 1988, served as its chairman and as a member of the SSB from 1985 to 1988, and was a 1987-1988 member of the SSB ad hoc Committee on Cooperative Exploration of Mars. He has been a member of several committees and boards that advise NASA and the Universities Space Research Association, was mission control science advisor for lunar surface operations during Apollo missions 14-17 in 1970-1972, and currently sits on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Galileo Review Board. He is currently a principal investigator in NASA's Planetary Materials and Geochemistry Research Program. He was awarded the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement in 1971. Pepin received a B.A. in physics from Harvard University in 1956 and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1964. THOMAS SCHMIDT is an assistant professor of microbiology at Miami University, a position he accepted in 1991 after serving as a postdoctoral fellow at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the Center for Great Lakes Studies, and Indiana University. Schmidt's research focuses on the development and application of molecular biological approaches to the study of naturally occurring microbial populations, including unculturable microorganisms. He has served as an outside reviewer for NASA's Exobiology Program and the Department of Energy's Subsurface Science Program. Schmidt received a B.S. in biology from the University 67

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of Michigan and an M.S. and a Ph.D. (1985) in environmental biology and microbiology from Ohio State University. JODI SHANN is an assistant professor of biology at the University of Cincinnati, where she has been since 1988. She currently serves on environmental advisory and education committees at the local, national, and international level. She received a B.S. in marine science from Stockton State College in 1976, an M.S. in plant and soil science from the University of Rhode Island in 1981, and a Ph.D. in Botany from North Carolina State University in 1986. From 1986 to 1988, Shann held a Department of Energy postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Georgia and the Savannah River Site. J. ROBIE VESTAL is a professor of biological sciences and a professor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati. His research interests include how microbial communities function in nature. He has studied microbial communities in Arctic lakes and in soils contaminated with hazardous waste, cryptoendolithic (hidden within rock) communities in Antarctica, mangrove-degrading communities in the Bahamas, and most recently, decomposer communities in municipal solid waste compost. He has also investigated microbial survival under simulated martian conditions. He earned a Ph.D. in microbiology at North Carolina State University and an M.S. at Miami University. His postdoctoral research at Syracuse University involved the biochemistry of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Vestal has served on many local and national committees and was recently chair of the Divisional Advisory Committee of the National Science Foundation's Division of Polar Programs. DAVID C. WHITE has been a University of Tennessee/Oak Ridge National Laboratory distinguished scientist and professor of microbiology and ecology since 1986. He is currently director of the Center for Environmental Biotechnology, where his research into assessment of the microbial ecology of biofilms and subsurface sediments has been used in monitoring microbial biofilms in contained life support systems and in protection of potable water systems for space habitability. He has served on NASA and SSB committees for planetary biology and chemical evolution, global habitability, and major directions in space science and has won awards from the Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy for scientific achievement in work on subsurface science and bioremediation. He received an A.B. from Dartmouth College in 1951, an M.D. from Tufts Medical School in 1955, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Rockefeller University in 1962. RICHARD S. YOUNG is a consultant who has worked for more than 30 years in the area of space life sciences (primarily exobiology and planetary protection and controlled ecological life support systems). He is a former manager of NASA's Exobiology Program and was NASA's planetary protection officer in the 1960s and 1970s. He is currently chairman of the Exobiology Discipline Working Group and is a member of several committees in the areas of exobiology, controlled ecological life 68

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support systems, and planetary protection. He has been very active in the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), Life Sciences for many years, and he holds a research professorship at the Florida Institute of Technology. He has an A.B. degree in biology from Gettysburg College, and honorary D.Sc. from Gettysburg College, and a Ph.D. from Florida State University. 69