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C Space Studies Board Planetary Protection Workshop 70

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WORKSHOP AGENDA FINAL AGENDA SPACE STUDIES BOARD PLANETARY PROTECTION WORKSHOP NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ARNOLD AND MABEL BECKMAN CENTER LECTURE ROOM IRVINE, CALIFORNIA SEPTEMBER 9-13, 1991 WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES: (1) To establish a historical perspective for Planetary Protection requirements (2) To review existing Guidelines and SSB Recommendations (3) To examine new scientivic evidence pertinent to Mars Exploration and Planetary Protection Requirements Day 1 - Monday, September 9, 1991 7:30- 8:30 BREAKFAST - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY a.m. 8:00- REGISTRATION 9:00 9:00 Welcome - Introductions - Ken Nealson Workshop Objectives Chairman 9:30 Review and Discussion of John Rummel NASA Request NASA Hdqtrs 10:00 Historical Perspective and H.P. (Chuck) Some Issues Pertinent to Klein Planetary Protection Policy Santa Clara Univ 10:30 Review and Discussion - John Rummel Current Planetary NASA Hdqtrs 71

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Protection Categories and Guidelines 11:00 NASA Mars Exploration Joe Boyce Planning - Code SL NASA Hdqtrs 11:45 NASA SEI Mars Lewis Peach Exploration Planning - NASA Hdqtrs Code RZ 12:15 LUNCH - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY p.m. 1:15 European Science Claudia Community Perspectives Lindberg on Planetary Protection Inst Aerospace Issues Medicine FRG 1:45 USSR Mars Planning - Michail Mars-94 and Beyond Ivanov USSR Academy of Sciences 2:30 BREAK 2:45 Overview of ARC 1990 Don Planetary Protection DeVincenzi Workshop - Purpose, ARC Major Findings, Outstanding Issues 3:15 Overview of Pg Workshop HP (Chuck) - Purpose, Major Issues, Klein Conclusions 3:45 Summary of Scientific Mary Lynn Issues and Discussions Pg Perille-Collins Workshop U Wisconsin Milwaukee 4:30 Antarctic Research Finding Diana Pertinent to Mars/Planetary Freckman Protection Issues U California Riverside 5:15 ADJOURN ******************** 72

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Day 2 - Tuesday, September 10, 1991 8:00- BREAKFAST - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY 9:00 a.m. 8:00 - 8:45 Optional Viewing - "Life in Ice" Room II-D 9:00 "MARS THE PLANET" Michael Carr USGS Bob Pepin Univ Minnesota Mars Science Working Michael Carr Group Activities Concerning Forward and Back Contamination Surface Temperatures Michael Carr Radiation Types and Flux Jim Gooding at the Surface JSC Soil Chemistry Ben Clark Martin Marietta Mars Meteorites Jay Melosh Lunar & Planetary Lab 12:00 LUNCH - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY p.m. 12:15-1:00 Optional Viewing - "Life in Ice" Room II-D 1:00 "LIFE IN EXTREME Ken Nealson ENVIRONMENTS" Low Water Stress Larry Hochstein ARC Stability Relations of Bruce Jakosky Water Univ of 73

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Colorado Low Temperature Stress Art Yayanos Scripps Low Pressure (Vacuum) TBD Stress UV and Radiation Stress Richard Setlow Brookhaven Ntl Lab Sporulation and Resting Philipp Forms and the Survival Gerhardt Capacity Michigan State Detection of Nucleic Acids Tom Schmidt Miami Univ 5:30 ADJOURN 6:30 COCKTAILS AND DINNER - BECKMAN CENTER PATIO ******************** Day 3, Wednesday, September 11, 1991 8:00- BREAKFAST - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY 9:00 a.m. 9:00 Current Scientific and Roger Bourke Technological Issues JPL Associated With Sample Return Missions 9:45 Alternative Sterilization Bob Howell Methods Bionetics Corp 10:30 Societal Issues Associated Margaret Race with Planetary UC Berkeley Protection/Back Contamination 11:15 Legal/Regulatory Issues George Associated with Planetary Robinson Protection Smithsonian 74

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12:00 Discussion and Wrap-Up Ken Nealson Chairman 12:30 LUNCH - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY EXECUTIVE SESSION 1:15 Discussion of Workshop Presentations, Review of Report p.m. Outline, Writing Assignments Writing Session 5:00 ADJOURN ******************** Day 4, 1991, Thursday, September 12, 1991 8:00 - BREAKFAST - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY 9:00 a.m. 9:00 Plenary Session - Discussion of Writing Assignments and Identification of Issues and Problems 9:30 Writing Session 12:00 LUNCH - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY p.m. 4:00 Plenary Session - Review Progress, NASA Request, and Task Group Charge 5:00 ADJOURN ******************** Day 5, Friday, September 13, 1991 8:00 - 9:00 BREAKFAST - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY a.m. 9:00 Writing Sessions 75

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12:00 LUNCH - BECKMAN CENTER REFECTORY p.m. 1:00 Plenary Session - Review of Report, Identification of Outstanding Issues, Additional Assignments, Determine Schedule for Completion of Report, Identify Future Meeting Dates 3:00 ADJOURN 76

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WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS Task Group Members Kenneth H. Nealson, Chairman, Center for Great Lakes Studies, University of Wisconsin John Baross, School of Oceanography, University of Washington Michael Carr, Branch of Astrogeology, U.S. Geological Survey Robert Pepin, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota Thomas Schmidt, Department of Microbiology, Miami University Jodi Shann, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati David White, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Richard Young, Private Consultant, Kennedy Space Center Joyce M. Purcell, Executive Secretary, Space Studies Board Space Studies Board Liaison Members James P. Ferris, Department of Chemistry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Louis J. Lanzerotti, AT&T Bell Laboratories NASA Participants Joseph M. Boyce, Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA Headquarters Don DeVincenzi, Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center Michael Duke, Lunar and Mars Exploration Office, Johnson Space Center Jim Gooding, Solar Systems Exploration Division, Johnson Space Center Larry Hochstein, Planetary Biology Branch, NASA Ames Research Center Lewis L. Peach, Jr., Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology, NASA Headquarters John D. Rummel, Office of Space Science and Applications, Life Sciences Division, NASA Headquarters Perry Stabekis, Programs and Flight Missions Department, NASA Headquarters Other Invited Participants Roger Bourke, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Benton C. Clark, Civil Space and Communications, Martin Marietta Corporation Diana Freckman, Department of Nematology, University of California 77

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Philipp Gerhardt, Department of Microbiology and Public Health, Michigan State University Robert Howell, Bionetics Corporation, NASA Ames Research Center Bruce Jakosky, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Harold P. Klein, Biology Division, Santa Clara University Jay Melosh, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona Mary Lynn Perille-Collins, Center for Great Lake Studies, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee Margaret Race, Botanical Gardens, University of California, Berkeley George S. Robinson, Office of the General Council, Smithsonian Institution Richard B. Setlow, Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory A. Aristides Yayanos, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego Foreign Participants Michail B. Ivanov, Institute of Microbiology, USSR Academy of Sciences Claudia Lindberg, Biophysics Division, Institute for Aerospace Medicine, Köln, Germany WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS AND RESOURCE MATERIALS Presentations NASA Planetary Protection Policy and Future Mars Mission Requirements—Review of the NASA Request, presentation by John D. Rummel, Planetary Protection Officer, NASA Headquarters, September 9, 1991 Historical Perspective and Some Issues Pertinent to Planetary Protection Policy, presentation by Harold P. Klein, Santa Clara University, September 9, 1991 NASA Planetary Protection Policy and Implementation, John D. Rummel, Planetary Protection Officer, NASA Headquarters, September 9, 1991 NASA Mars Exploration Planning (Code SL), Joseph M. Boyce, NASA Headquarters, September 9, 1991 NASA SEI Mars Exploration Planning (Code RZ), Lewis L. Peach, Office of Exploration, September 9, 1991 European Science Community Perspectives on Planetary Protection, presentation by Claudia Lindberg, Institute for Aerospace Medicine, DLR, Köln, Germany, September 9, 1991 USSR Mars Planning, presentation by Michail Ivanov, USSR Academy of Sciences, September 9, 1991 78

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A Summary of the NASA Workshop on Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions, Donald L. DeVincenzi, NASA Ames Research Center, September 9, 1991 Overview of Probability of Growth (Pg) Workshop—Purpose, Major Issues, Conclusions, presentation by Harold P. Klein, Santa Clara University, September 9, 1991 Mars Surface Temperatures, presentation by Michael Carr, September 10, 1991 Biogeochemical Information About Mars Inferred from SNC Meteorites, presentation by James L. Gooding, Code SN/Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Johnson Space Center, September 10, 1991 Mars Soil Chemistry, presentation by Benton Clark, Martin Marietta, Denver, Colorado, September 10, 1991 Stability of Water and Ice on Mars, presentation by Bruce M. Jakosky, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, September 10, 1991 UV and Radiation Stress, presentation by Richard B. Setlow, Brookhaven National Laboratory, September 10, 1991 Sporulation and Resting Forms and the Survival Capacity, written presentation by Philipp Gerhardt, Michigan State University, September 10, 1991 Detection of Nucleic Acids and Citations Indicating the Inadequacy of Microscopic and Culture Methods for Describing Microbial Communities, presentation by Thomas Schmidt, September 10, 1991 Scientific and Technological Issues Associated with Sample Return Missions, presentation by Roger D. Bourke, Manager, Exploration Initiative Studies Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, September 11, 1991 Alternative Sterilization Methods, presentation by Robert Howell, Bionetics Corporation, September 11, 1991 Societal Issues Associated with Planetary Protection and Back Contamination, presentation by Margaret Race, University of California, Berkeley, September 11, 1991 Exobiology and Planetary Protection—The Evolving Law, presentation by George S. Robinson, Smithsonian Institution, September 11, 1991 Papers Cited "Action Spectra for Survival and Spore Photoproduct Formation of Bacillus subtilis Irradiated with Short-Wavelength (200-300 nm) UV at Atmospheric Pressure and in Vacuo" (J. Photochem. Photobiol. B:Biol. 11:69-80, June 7, 1991) C. Lindberg and G. Horneck, Köln, Germany 79

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"Can Spores Survive in Interstellar Space?" (Nature 316:403-407, August 1985), Peter Weber and Mayo Greenberg, Laboratory of Astrophysics, University of Leiden, 2313 A.V. Leiden, The Netherlands "Ejection of Rock Fragments from Planetary Bodies" (Geology, pp. 144- 148, February 1985), H. Jay Melosh, Lunary and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona "Evolutional and Ecological Implications of the Properties of Deep-Sea Barophilic Bacteria" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:9542-9546, December 1986), A. Aristides Yayanos, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California "First Biological and Dosimetric Results of the Free Flyer Biostack Experiment A0015 on LDEF," G. Reitz, H. Bucker, R. Facius, G. Horneck, M. Schafer, and J.U. Schott, DLR, FF-ME, Biophysics Division, Linder Hohe, 5000 Köln 90, Germany "Ionizing Radiation at the Surface of Mars" (unpublished paper), James L. Gooding and Gautaum D. Badhwar, September 10, 1991 "The Large Crater Origin of SNC Meteorites" (Science 237:738-743, August 14, 1987), A.M. Vickery and H.J. Melosh "Long-Term Exposure of Bacterial Spores to Space" (submitted to Nature), G. Horneck, H. Bucker, G. Reitz, Institute for Aerospace Medicine, DLR, Linder Hohe, 5000 Köln 90, Germany "The Rocky Road to Panspermia" (Nature 332:6166, April 21, 1988), Jay Melosh, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona "Spore Thermoresistance Mechanisms" (Chapter 2 from Regulation of Procaryotic Development, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1989), Philipp Gerhardt and Robert E. Marquis Other Resource Materials DeVincenzi, D.L., H.P. Klein, and J. Bagby. 1991. Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. "European Space Report," Policy Issues in East and West, Volume 2, Number 14, n.d. Excerpts from Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, Space Science Board, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978 Klein, H.P. 1991. Planetary Protection Issues for the MESUR Mission: Probability of Growth (Pg). NASA conference publication. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. "Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR)," NASA informational brochure, n.d. 80

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"Marsnet—A Mars Network of Surface Stations" (unpublished white paper), G.E.N., Scoon, ESA/ESTEC, n.d. Mazur, Peter. 1980. "Limits to Life at Low Temperatures and at Reduced Water Contents and Water Activities." Origins Life 10:137-159. Revised Planetary Protection Policy, presentation by D. DeVincenzi to Space Science Board, October 10, 1985 Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, Special Issue, Volume 1, Number 5, August 10, 1990 "The Viking Mission and the Question of Life on Mars," Journal of Mo- lecular Evolution, 14, Numbers 1-3, 1979 81