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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 NOTICE MEMBERSHIP FOREWORD SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 Committee on Solar and Space Physics BIBLIOGRAPHY Space Studies Board ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS Commission on Physical Sciences, APPENDIX A Mathematics, and Applications APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91menu.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:18 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 NOTICE MEMBERSHIP FOREWORD SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. STATUS OF THE DISCIPLINE Discipline-Specific Issues Solar Physics Heliospheric Physics Cosmic Ray Physics Middle- and Upper-Atmosphere Physics Solar-Terrestrial Coupling Comparative Planetary Studies Common Issues Program Management Data Archiving and Access Explorer Program Coordinated Programs and Synoptic Observations Research and Analysis Education 3. CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS APPENDIXES A. Guidelines for Assessment Reports for Standing Committees of the Space Studies Board B. Audience for CSSP and CSTR Advice C. Membership Lists, CSSP/CSTR Parent Organizations NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS, 1991 file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91menu.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:18 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Notice) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. REPORT MENU NOTICE The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the MEMBERSHIP charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of FOREWORD outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection SUMMARY of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility CHAPTER 1 for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also CHAPTER 2 sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages CHAPTER 3 education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. BIBLIOGRAPHY Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS APPENDIX A The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National APPENDIX B Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate APPENDIX C professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91notice.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:36 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Notice) of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for the Space Studies Board was provided through Contract NASW-4102 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Support for the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate is provided via the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Climate Program Office under Grant Number NA87-AA-D-CP014; and by NASA under Grant Number NAGW-2242. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91notice.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:36 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Membership) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 Membership COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS COMMITTEE ON SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH* Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Co-Chair Donald J. Williams, The Johns Hopkins University, Co-Chair Thomas Cravens, University of Kansas Alan C. Cummings, California Institute of Technology Gordon Emslie, University of Alabama John Foster, Massachusetts Institute of Technology David C. Fritts, University of Alaska Rolando R. Garcia, National Center for Atmospheric Research Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California at Los Angeles Martin A. Lee, University of New Hampshire Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology REPORT MENU Eugene N. Parker, University of Chicago NOTICE Peter J. Palmadesso, Naval Research Laboratory MEMBERSHIP Douglas M. Rabin, National Optical Astronomy Observatory FOREWORD David M. Rust, The Johns Hopkins University SUMMARY Raymond J. Walker, University of California at Los Angeles CHAPTER 1 Yuk L. Yung, California Institute of Technology CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 Murray Dryer, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Ex- BIBLIOGRAPHY Officio ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS APPENDIX A Staff APPENDIX B APPENDIX C Richard C. Hart, Executive Secretary, CSSP Donald Hunt, Executive Secretary, CSTR Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Secretary _________________ file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91mem.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:45 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Membership) *The Committee on Solar and Space Physics is a committee of the Space Studies Board of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. The Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research is a committee of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. The members of the parent organizations are listed in Appendix C. Last update 12/13/00 at 10:48 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91mem.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:45 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Foreword) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 Foreword This report is one in a series written by the standing discipline committees of the Space Studies Board. The purpose of this new series is to assess the status of our nation's space science and applications research programs and to review the responses of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other relevant federal agencies to the Board's past recommendations. It is important, periodically, to take stock of where research disciplines stand. As an advisory body to government, the Space Studies Board should regularly examine the advice it has provided in order to determine its relevance and effectiveness. As a representative of the community of individuals actively engaged in space research and its many applications, the Board has an abiding interest in evaluating the nation's accomplishments and setbacks in space. In some cases, recurring budget problems and unexpected hardware REPORT MENU failures have delayed or otherwise hindered the attainment of recommended NOTICE objectives. In other cases, space scientists and engineers have achieved MEMBERSHIP outstanding discoveries and new understandings of the Earth, the solar system, FOREWORD and the universe. Although the recent past has seen substantial progress in the SUMMARY nation's civil space program, much remains to be done. CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 These reports cover the areas of earth science and applications, solar BIBLIOGRAPHY system exploration (and the origins of life), solar and space physics, and space ABBREVIATIONS AND biology and medicine. Where appropriate, these reports also include the status of ACRONYMS data management recommendations set forth in the reports of the Space Studies APPENDIX A Board's former Committee on Data Management and Computation. The Board APPENDIX B has chosen not to assess two major space research disciplines—astronomy and APPENDIX C astrophysics, and microgravity research—at this time. Astronomy and astrophysics was recently surveyed in a report under the aegis of the Board on Physics and astronomy, The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991); the Space Studies Board is currently developing a strategy for the new area of microgravity research. On completion of the four reports, the Board will summarize the contents file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91foreword.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:53 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Foreword) of each volume and produce an overview. The Space Studies Board expects to repeat this assessment process approximately every three years, not only for the general benefit of our nation's space research program, but also to assist the Board in determining the need for updating or revising its research strategies and recommendations. Louis J. Lanzerotti Chairman, Space Studies Board Last update 12/13/00 at 10:54 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91foreword.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 2:01:53 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Summary) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 Summary INTRODUCTION The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) and the Committee on Solar Terrestrial Research (CSTR) are both responsible for providing scientific advice to U.S. government agencies in the overlapping fields of solar physics, space physics, and solar-terrestrial relationships. The CSSP is a subcommittee of and reports to the Space Studies Board (SSB); the CSTR has a similar relationship to the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC). CSSP and CSTR now function as a single, federated committee reporting to both the SSB and BASC. This assessment report has been written in response to a request by the SSB for an assessment of the way in which prior recommendations of the National Research Council (NRC) are being implemented by the appropriate federal agencies (See Appendix A). The federated committee has expanded the scope of the study beyond that requested REPORT MENU by the SSB to include an assessment of responses to NRC reports in solar- NOTICE terrestrial research that are beyond the space-oriented scope of the SSB. This MEMBERSHIP report was reviewed and approved by the SSB. FOREWORD SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 STATUS OF DISCIPLINE BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS AND The scientific purview of the CSSP and CSTR covers the disciplines of ACRONYMS solar physics, heliospheric physics, cosmic ray physics, magnetospheric physics, APPENDIX A middle- and upper-atmosphere physics, solar-terrestrial coupling, and APPENDIX B comparative planetary studies. The assessment has two major sections: APPENDIX C discipline-specific issues and common issues. Discipline-Specific Issues Solar Physics file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91summary.htm (1 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:02:04 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Summary) Good progress has been made in studies of solar irradiance variations, high-energy emissions, and solar magnetism, resulting in part from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and the development of ground-based Stokes polarimeters. Fundamental studies of helioseismology and solar neutrinos are slowly progressing. The principal problem areas are the lack of prospects for space observations of the highest-energy solar phenomena during both the current and the next solar maximum, multiyear gaps in solar irradiance measurements, lack of a funded plan for U.S. participation in the Large Earth- Based Solar Telescope, (LEST), and most critically, the extraordinarily long delay in achieving a new start for the Orbiting Solar Laboratory (OSL). Because of the breadth and importance of its scientific goals, OSL remains the top-priority candidate for a new mission start. Heliospheric Physics Extremely valuable data on the properties of the outer heliosphere continue to be received from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. With the successful launch of Ulysses, the fist in situ measurements of the three- dimensional structure of the heliosphere will be obtained in 1993-1995. Both Ulysses and Wind (to be launched in 1993) are expected to allow great advances in our knowledge of the abundance and charge state of solar wind ions. Problem areas are the lack of advanced development of technology required for future missions and the decline in support for ground-based radio observations of the solar corona and solar wind. Cosmic Ray Physics Data returned by the Voyager and Pioneer spacecraft launched, in the 1970s, gave valuable new insights into the modulation of galactic cosmic rays, the nature of anomalous cosmic rays, and the variable abundances of solar energetic particles. Although several other missions and experiments responsive to NRC recommendations were started, many of them were subsequently canceled or postponed indefinitely; others have been stretched out over more than a decade. The augmentation of the Explorer Program has led to the selection of two new cosmic ray missions-the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) and the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). Magnetospheric Physics During the 1980s, a number of advances occurred that increased our understanding of magnetospheric physics, including definitive observations that the ionosphere is a major source of magnetospheric particles, initial measurements of the composition and charge state of the ring current, the discovery of plasmoids traveling at high velocity away from the Earth, and the file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91summary.htm (2 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:02:04 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Summary) development of new models of the Earth's magnetopause, bow shock, and foreshock regions. The key magnetospheric project, the International Solar- Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, has been subject to delays and descoping actions. Deletion of the Equator spacecraft eliminated crucial measurements of the equatorial magnetosphere. NASA is currently trying to develop other ways to obtain those key measurements. The several ISTP elements may, however, be spread out in time to the extent that there will be little of the simultaneity of measurements so vital to accomplishing the ISTP objectives. Although the mission of the recently launched Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is td perform some active magnetospheric experiments, much of the active experiment program has been lost as a major element of magnetospheric research because of budget cuts and delays. Middle- and Upper-Atmosphere Physics There has been much progress in implementing NRC recommendations in this discipline; the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP), the Coupling Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) program, and a series of satellite observations gave a major boost to studies of chemical, dynamical, radiation, and coupling processes. Recent studies of the polar ozone depletion are especially noteworthy, but the ',combination of long delays, such as in Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS); the lack of a vigorous research program on the effects of solar activity on the middle atmosphere; and some gaps in addressing the global electric circuit problem, has reduced expected progress in some important areas. Solar-Terrestrial Coupling Progress in solar-terrestrial coupling has been closely related to results in the areas of magnetospheric and atmospheric physics. Those results, mostly tied to programs defined in the 1970s and conducted in the 1980s, have improved our understanding of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and resulting dynamics. The programmatic delays from planning to implementation have meant that most of the solar-terrestrial recommendations made through the 1980s will not be acted on until the 1990s. Illustrative of programs that are expected to provide major advances in this area are the ISTP, CEDAR, and Geospace Environmental Modeling (GEM) programs. Comparative Planetary Studies Observations of planetary magnetospheres and atmospheres continue to be an important element of solar system exploration. The Voyager flybys of Uranus and Neptune added two new planets to the list of objects available for comparative studies of planetary magnetospheres and magnetosphere- ionosphere-atmosphere interactions. But again, major delays (e.g., in the Galileo and CRAF/Cassini missions) and the absence of a U.S. mission to comet Halley file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91summary.htm (3 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:02:04 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Summary) have significantly slowed the implementation of recommendations in this area. Common Issues Program Management The recommended establishment oaf a separate Space Physics Division within NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) has been successfully implemented. The recommended reorganization of the solar physics program within NSF is still under consideration. The recommended interagency coordination council for solar terrestrial research was formed, but has not been active since 1987. International coordination has been excellent. Data Archiving and Access The recommended solar-terrestrial Central Data Catalog and Data Access Network have not been implemented. Although there have been some initial developments in this area, progress has been painfully slow. A great deal needs to be done before the NRC recommendations are met. Explorer Program The recommendations of an augmentation of the Explorer program and the institution of a two-stage selection process have both been implemented, as has the recommendation for a return to a concept of small, simple missions. The recommended level of an average of one Explorer per year for solar and space physics has not been reached, however, because cost overruns in the current Explorer program continue to cause delays. Coordinated Programs and Synoptic Observations Several initiatives have responded to recommendations for coordinated programs. Examples include ISTP and CEDAR. To date, there is no national program or policy supporting recommendations for synoptic observations of the fundamental parameters of the solar-terrestrial system. One exception was NASA's successful effort to increase the data return from the IMP-8 spacecraft. Research and Analysis Even though support and augmentation of the research base have been recommended by virtually every report, the base appears to have eroded. In file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91summary.htm (4 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:02:04 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Summary) addition to this major concern, agency responses to other specific recommendations in this area include the following: 1. Theory and modeling. NASA's Space Physics Theory Program (previously called the Solar-Terrestrial Theory Program) has been very successful, but there is concern about the steady erosion of average grant sizes in real-year dollars. 2. Supercomputing. Recommendations for access to supercomputers for solar-terrestrial research have largely been met. The limiting factor for many scientists is now the lack of the small, inexpensive workstations required to communicate with the supercomputers and to analyze and display their output. 3. Suborbital and Spartan programs. After some floundering during the mid-1980s, NASA's balloon program is currently fairly healthy, with the major problem being limited funding for instrument development. The rocket program has declined because funding has not kept up with inflation, active experiments were removed from the program, and funds were diverted to development of the Spartan program (a diversion with which the NRC concurred). The Spartan program effectively ended with the Challenger accident and, in retrospect, the resources expended for the Spartan program adversely affected the rocket-type science program it was meant to help. Education To date, only a few programs have set aside specific funds to support educational components of their activities. The CEDAR program has shown notable success in this area. CONCLUSIONS In summary, there has been considerable scientific progress during the past decade, with the bulk of the advances stemming from programs started in the 1970s, prior to the NRC recommendations considered in this report. Progress on the NRC recommendations of the 1980s has been generally slow, however, and in some cases nonexistent. Cancellations, long delays, and major programmatic restructuring have been routine. The perception is that initial responses have been positive but that actions in the implementation phases have not been carried through to achieve the goals embodied in the recommendations. Because of these cancellations, delays, and stretch outs, the scientific goals and most of the specific recommendations for each of the subdisciplines remain valid. There is presently no need for a new set of scientific goals and priorities. The most recent NRC report that set out an implementation plan for solar and space physics was written in 1985. Although parts of that report are file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91summary.htm (5 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:02:04 PM]

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Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991 (Summary) now obsolete, the CSSP/CSTR plans to review NASA's Strategic Plan currently under development rather than to develop an implementation strategy of its own at the present time. The federated committee also plans to further examine issues in the agencies' research and analysis programs. Last update 12/13/00 at 11:20 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board The National Academies Current Projects Publications Directories Search Site Map Feedback file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssp91summary.htm (6 of 6) [6/18/2004 2:02:04 PM]