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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 NOTICE MEMBERSHIP FOREWORD SUMMARY CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration CHAPTER 5 Space Studies Board CHAPTER 6 Commission on Physical Sciences, CHAPTER 7 Mathematics, and Applications CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 National Research Council REFERENCES NOTICE MEMBERSHIP file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91menu.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:56:26 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 FOREWORD SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. EXPLORATION OF THE INNER PLANETS Science Objectives Current Status of NASA's Exploration of the Inner Planets 3. EXPLORATION OF THE OUTER PLANETS Science Objectives Current Status of NASA's Exploration of the Outer Planets 4. EXPLORATION OF PRIMITIVE SOLAR-SYSTEM BODIES Science Objectives Current Status of NASA's Exploration of Primitive Bodies 5. DETECTION AND STUDY OF OTHER SOLAR SYSTEMS 6. EXOBIOLOGY PROGRAMS Science Objectives Current Status of NASA's Exobiology Programs 7. DATA MANAGEMENT AND COMPUTATION ISSUES IN PLANETARY SCIENCE 8. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN PLANETARY EXPLORATION PROGRAMS U.S.-European Cooperation in Planetary Exploration International Cooperation for Mars Exploration Concluding Remarks 9. GENERAL PROGRAMMATIC ISSUES Planetary Flight Programs Research and Analysis Programs Ground-Based and Earth-Orbital Astronomy 10. REFERENCES file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91menu.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:56:26 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Notice) Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self- perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. REPORT MENU NOTICE The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the MEMBERSHIP charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of FOREWORD outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection SUMMARY of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility CHAPTER 1 for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also CHAPTER 2 sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages CHAPTER 3 education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. CHAPTER 4 Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National CHAPTER 8 Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate CHAPTER 9 professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the REFERENCES public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91notice.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:56:34 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Notice) of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided through Contract NASW-4102 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91notice.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:56:34 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Membership) Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 Membership COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION Larry W. Esposito, University of Colorado, Chairman Alan P. Boss, Carnegie Institution of Washington *Andrew F. Cheng, Johns Hopkins University Anita L. Cochran, University of Texas at Austin Peter J. Gierasch, Cornell University *Jonathan I. Lunine, University of Arizona Lucy-Ann McFadden, University of California, San Diego Christopher P. McKay, NASA Ames Research Center Duane O. Muhleman, California Institute of Technology Norman R. Pace, Indiana University Graham Ryder, Lunar and Planetary Institute *Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles REPORT MENU *Peter H. Schultz, Brown University NOTICE Paul D. Spudis, Lunar and Planetary Institute MEMBERSHIP Peter H. Stone, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FOREWORD *G. Jeffrey Taylor, University of Hawaii SUMMARY Richard W. Zurek, California Institute of Technology CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 Invited Participant CHAPTER 3 Fred W. Taylor, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 Staff CHAPTER 7 Paul F. Uhlir, Senior Program Officer CHAPTER 8 Mary Ellen Mack, Secretary CHAPTER 9 Altoria L. Bell, Secretary REFERENCES ______________________ *COMPLEX members who participated in the writing of this report, but whose terms expired in 1990. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91mem.htm (1 of 4) [6/18/2004 1:56:53 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Membership) SPACE STUDIES BOARD Louis J. Lanzerotti, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Chairman Philip Abelson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Joseph A. Burns, Cornell University John R. Carruthers, INTEL Andrea K. Dupree, Harvard-Smithsonian Institution John A. Dutton, Pennsylvania State University Larry Esposito, University of Colorado James P. Ferris, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Herbert Friedman, Naval Research Laboratory Richard L. Garwin, IBM Corporation Riccardo Giacconi, Space Telescope Science Institute Noel W. Hinners, Martin Marietta Civil Space & Communication Company James R. Houck, Cornell University David A. Landgrebe, Purdue University Elliott C. Levinthal, Stanford University William J. Merrell, Jr., Texas A&M University at Galveston Richard K. Moore, University of Kansas Robert H. Moser, The NutraSweet Company Norman F. Ness, University of Delaware Marcia Neugebauer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Sally K. Ride, University of California at San Diego Robert F. Sekerka, Carnegie Mellon University Mark Settle, ARCO Oil and Gas Company L. Dennis Smith, University of California at Irvine Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas at Austin Arthur B.C. Walker, Jr., Stanford University Marc S. Allen, Staff Director COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS Norman Hackerman, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Chairman Peter J. Bickel, University of California, Berkeley George F. Carrier, Harvard University Herbert D. Doan, The Dow Chemical Company (retired) Dean E. Eastman, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas Phillip A. Griffiths, Duke University Neal F. Lane, Rice University Robert W. Lucky, AT&T Bell Laboratories Christopher F. McKee, University of California, Berkeley Richard S. Nicholson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91mem.htm (2 of 4) [6/18/2004 1:56:53 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Membership) Alan Schriesheim, Argonne National Laboratory Roy F. Schwitters, Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory Kenneth G. Wilson, Ohio State University Norman Metzger, Executive Director Last update 12/7/00 at 10:53 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91mem.htm (3 of 4) [6/18/2004 1:56:53 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Foreword) Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 Foreword This report is one in a series written by the standing discipline committees of the Space Studies Board. The purpose of this new series is to assess the status of our nation's space science and applications research programs and to review the responses of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other relevant federal agencies to the Board's past recommendations. It is important, periodically, to take stock of where research disciplines stand. As an advisory body to government, the Space Studies Board should regularly examine the advice it has provided in order to determine its relevance and effectiveness. As a representative of the community of individuals actively engaged in space research and its many applications, the Board has an abiding interest in evaluating the nation's accomplishments and setbacks in space. In some cases, recurring budget problems and unexpected hardware REPORT MENU failures have delayed or otherwise hindered the attainment of recommended NOTICE objectives. In other cases, space scientists and engineers have achieved MEMBERSHIP outstanding discoveries and new understandings of the Earth, the solar system, FOREWORD and the universe. Although the recent past has seen substantial progress in the SUMMARY nation's civil space program, much remains to be done. CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 These reports cover the areas of earth science and applications, solar CHAPTER 4 system exploration (and the origins of life), solar and space physics, and space CHAPTER 5 biology and medicine. Where appropriate, these reports also include the status of CHAPTER 6 data management recommendations set forth in the reports of the Space Studies CHAPTER 7 Board's former Committee on Data Management and Computation. The Board CHAPTER 8 has chosen not to assess two major space research disciplines—astronomy and CHAPTER 9 astrophysics, and microgravity research—at this time. Astronomy and REFERENCES astrophysics was recently surveyed in a report under the aegis of the Board on Physics and astronomy, The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991); the Space Studies Board is currently developing a strategy for the new area of microgravity research. On completion of the four reports, the Board will summarize the contents file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91foreword.htm (1 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:57:04 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Foreword) of each volume and produce an overview. The Space Studies Board expects to repeat this assessment process approximately every three years, not only for the general benefit of our nation's space research program, but also to assist the Board in determining the need for updating or revising its research strategies and recommendations. Louis J. Lanzerotti Chairman, Space Studies Board Last update 12/7/00 at 11:35 am Site managed by Anne Simmons, Space Studies Board file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91foreword.htm (2 of 3) [6/18/2004 1:57:04 PM]

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Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 (Summary) Assessment of Solar System Exploration Programs 1991 Summary The advisory base for the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) is made up of a series of documents published over the last 15 years. These documents provide a rationale for planetary exploration, a strategy for carrying out scientific study of the solar system, and a series of recommendations to NASA for implementation of this strategy. This report reviews the recommendations of the committee and the status of the field of planetary exploration relative to those recommendations. NASA's planetary exploration program has made great strides in the past few years. Much of the strategy for exploration of the planets proposed by COMPLEX has been implemented. Other areas await the arrival of planned or approved space missions at their targets. The rate at which the proposed scientific objectives would be achieved was in some cases overestimated by COMPLEX; these objectives still await fulfillment. REPORT MENU NOTICE Significant scientific objectives have been achieved in exploration of the MEMBERSHIP outer planets and comets. U.S.-European cooperation is proceeding well. Further FOREWORD exploration of Venus is under way and of Mars is imminent. In contrast, little SUMMARY progress has been made in more intensive study of the Moon and Mercury and in CHAPTER 1 preliminary reconnaissance of asteroids and Pluto. Exploration on the surface of CHAPTER 2 Venus, in the inner Jupiter magnetosphere, and in the deep atmospheres of the CHAPTER 3 outer planets requires significant technical developments that should be CHAPTER 4 undertaken. These developments include high-temperature and high-pressure CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 instruments, radiation-hardened spacecraft, and development of low-thrust CHAPTER 7 propulsion. The recommendations in the areas of detection and study of other CHAPTER 8 solar systems and in exobiology research are so recent that it is premature to CHAPTER 9 evaluate the status of current activities. REFERENCES Areas of concern to the planetary science community include the absence of a plan to carry out the extended mission for Magellan, the lack of reserves in approved flight missions, and the inappropriate use of research and analysis funds as a reserve for mission overruns. The committee views positively the proposed planetary Discovery mission line and NASA's efforts to encourage interdisciplinary research. file:///C|/SSB_old_web/ssep91summary.htm (1 of 2) [6/18/2004 1:57:15 PM]