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1. INTRODUCTION An inlemational conference was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, January 26- 29, 1976, under the atnplces of the National Academy of Sciences (N AS) of the United States and the European Science Foundation (ESF) to discuss the scientifiC importance and use of planned space obsetvatories. The meeting was organized jointly by the Space Science Bo.trd of theN AS and the Space Sci- ence and Astronomy Cornrnillees of the ES •· and was conducted under the chairmansh.ip of Sir Harrie Massey. Although the conference covered all space observatories, the participants paid particular auenlion to the projected Large Space Telescope (LST) be- cause of its exceptional sW~ificance for the future of astronomy. In so doing, the participants were fully aware of the close relation of the LST to ground- based optical astronomy. Indeed , when the LST is in operation, there will be a new generation of ground-ba.se