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VENUS Strategy for Exploration Report of a Study by the Space Science Board June 1970 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Washington, D.C. 1970

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from Available Space Science Board 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington. D.C. 20418

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SPACESCIENCEBOARD Chairman Charles H. Townes, William M. Kaula James R. Arnold John 1.J.Findlay Donald B. Lindsley William A. Fowler William W. Rubey Roman Smoluchowski Herbert Friedman Wolf Vishniac Richard M. Goody John S. Hall Ex officio: Francis S. Johnson Raymond L. Bisplinghoff VENUSSTUDY Richard M. Goody, Harvard University, Chairman Donald M. Hunten, Kitt Peak National Observatory, Co-Chairman Don L. Anderson Michael B. McElroy California Institute of Technology Kitt Peak National Observatory W. Ian Axford Gordon H. Pettengill University of California, San Diego Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory Alan H. Barrett Robert A. Phinney ~~ssachusetts Institute of Technology Princeton University Leverett Davis, Jr. S. Keith Runcorn California Institute of Technology The University of Newcastle, U.K. Thomas M. Donahue Verner Suomi University of Pittsburgh University of Wisconsin John C. Gille Patrick Thaddeus Florida State University Columbia, University Seymour Hess G. Leonard Tyler Florida State University Stanford University James A. Weinman Garry E. Hunt Atlas Computer Laboratory, U.K. University of Wisconsin Robert G. Knollenberg George W. Wetherill The University of Chicago University of California, Los Angeles John S. Lewis Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruce N. Gregory, Study Director National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contribu,tol's J. E. Ains'\vorth 1. G. Popoff D. G. Rea S. J. Bauer N. Sirri R. S. Kraemer G. M. Levin N. H. Spencer P. G. Marcotte IIT Researoh Institute Contributor D. L. Roberts

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PREFACE This is the report of a study convened by the Space Science Board in cooperation with the Lunar and Planetary Missions Board of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to consider the scientific potential of missions to Venus based on the relatively low-cost Explorer technology concept. The participants considered a program initially estimated to cost approximately $100 million for the first three missions and $20 million to $25 million for each succeeding probe or orbiter mission; it must be borne in mind that these figures are preliminary and reflect planning estimates rather than contractual obligations. This study was conducted during the week of June 7, 1970, under the cochairmanship of Richard Goody and Donald M. Hunten and involved twenty-one scientists representing a range of scientific interests in the exploration of Venus. The recom- mendations of the group were presented to NASA management on the morning of June 18 and endorsed by the Space Science Board at its meeting of June 22 and 23, 1970. The Space Science Board is grateful to those who parti- cipated in this study, to Bruce N. Gregory, who served as Staff Director of the study, and to Mrs. Jacqueline Boraks, for her contributions to the report's publication. The Board acknowledges with appreciation the support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which helped to make this study possible, and the special assignments undertaken by NASA in preparation for the study. C. H. Townes, Chairman Space Science Board

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL RECO~lliENDATIONS 3 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 7 RECO1'fHENDATIONS Chapter 2 17 UPPER ATMOSPHERE AND PLASMA INTERACTIONS Chapter 3 30 4 LOWER ATMOSPHERE Chapter 50 PLANETOLOGY Chapter 5 SCIENTIFIC CAPABILITIES OF THE PI~NETARY Chapter 6 66 EXPLORER 73 AN EXPLORATION STRATEGY Chapter 7