The evidence indicates that public participation processes have better results when they follow basic principles of program management: clarity of purpose, commitment, adequate resources, appropriate timing, an implementation focus, and a commitment to learning. However, it is not always easy to follow these principles. Difficulties can arise from a variety of factors, including internal differences of purpose within the responsible agency, shortages of money or skilled personnel, timing of participation, and various other contestable factors outside the agency. When such difficulties exist, success depends on how well the process is organized to avoid or overcome the problems they present. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss this issue.

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