entity or group of entities that may convene a public participation process, provide the resources for it to proceed, or take action based on its results.


3We recognize that public participation is sometimes organized merely for appearance or to comply with external requirements and without the intent to make use of public input, but the use or nonuse of public input is separate from the definition of participation.


4Some researchers make a sharp distinction between “stakeholder involvement” and “public participation” (English et al., 1993; Yosie and Herbst, 1998; Ashford and Rest, 1999). When this distinction is made, public participation generally connotes processes that do not “differentiate among different members of the public” (Ashford and Rest, 1999:1-3), and stakeholder involvement refers to processes that define participants in terms of the interests or organized groups they represent (English et al., 1993; Ashford and Rest, 1999); we do not follow this distinction.


5An additional 255 such documents lacked sufficient detail to be used in the analysis.

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