REFERENCES

Alpert, J. S., and R. J. Goldberg. 2007. Dear patient: Association is not synonymous with causality. American Journal of Medicine 120(8):649–650.

Ellwood, J. M. 1998. Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Evans, A. S. 1976. Causation and disease: The Henle–Koch postulates revisited. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 49(2):175–195.

Hill, A. B. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295–300.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1994. Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

———. 2000. Gulf War and Health, Volume 1: Depleted Uranium, Pyridostigmine Bromide, Sarin, Vaccines. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

———. 2003. Gulf War and Health, Volume 2: Insecticides and Solvents. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

———. 2005. Gulf War and Health, Volume 3: Fuels, Combustion Products, and Propellants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

———. 2006. Gulf War and Health, Volume 4: Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

———. 2007. Gulf War and Health, Volume 6: Health Effects of Deployment-Related Stress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Monson, R. 1990. Occupational Epidemiology, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Animals as Sentinels of Environmental Health Hazards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Office of the Surgeon General-HHS. 2004. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/smokingconsequences (accessed July 31, 2008).

Susser, M. 1973. Causal Thinking in the Health Sciences: Concepts and Strategies of Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

———. 1977. Judgment and causal inference: Criteria in epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 105(1):1–15.

———. 1988. Falsification, verification, and causal inference in epidemiology: Reconsideration in the light of Sir Karl Popper's philosophy. In Causal Inference. Edited by K. J. Rothman. Chestnut Hill, MA: Epidemiology Resources. Pp. 33–58.

———. 1991. What is a cause and how do we know one? A grammar for pragmatic epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology 133(7):635–648.

Teasdale, G., and B. Jennett. 1974. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet 2(7872):81–84.

Wegman, D. H., N. F. Woods, and J. C. Bailar. 1997. Invited commentary: How would we know a Gulf War syndrome if we saw one? American Journal of Epidemiology 146(9):704–711.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement