Study Design

Population (Where Appropriate)




Enrolled (Response Rate)

Levin et al., 1991b

Vegetative state, and consciousness


650 patients available for analysis after following exclusions: 167 (16%) had gunshot wounds, 121 (14%) were brain-dead on admission, 92 (12%) were under 16 years old


Levin et al., 1991a

Intracranial hypertension in relation to memory deficits


Intracranial pressure recorded at 6-mo followup (n = 149), 1-year followup (n = 132); 133 patients 6 mo after injury, 126 patients 1 year after injury assessed with auditory verbal and nonverbal visual memory tests

Comparison group, normal community residents of Galveston (n = 27) matched on age, education

Chesnut et al., 1993

Early and late hypotension in regards to mortality


699 patients available for analysis at time of hospital arrival after following exclusions: 284 were brain-dead on admission, did not survive resuscitation, or had GSW to head; 29 had insufficient information on prehospital course; 18 had insufficient blood-pressure or blood-gas results


Lu et al., 2005



635 patients 16–65 years old from TCDB in 1984–1987 (163 with penetrating injury, 76 dead on arrival excluded); 382 from Medical College of Virginia and 822 from clinical-trial databases also included



Eligible Population

Type of Study or Methods

Date(s) of Enrollment

Subgroup (n= Eligible Subjects)

Contacted or Located (% of Eligible)

Responded or Enrolled (Response Rate)


Bryant and Harvey Studies

Bryant and Harvey, 1998

222 adults 16–65 years old (mild TBI, no TBI) admitted to major trauma center in New South Wales, Australia after MVA


Unspecified 10-mo period

98 had mild TBI

79 (81%) included

At 6 mo, 63 patients captured (80% followup rate)

Exclusion criteria: inability to speak English, PTA > 24 h, not medically fit or on narcotic analgesia other than codeine, inability to be contacted

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