Eligible Population

Type of Study or Methods

Date(s) of Enrollment

Subgroup (n= Eligible Subjects)

Contacted or Located (% of Eligible)

Responded or Enrolled (Response Rate)


Boxing Studies: Porter et al., 1996, 2003

Porter and Fricker, 1996

Male boxers in amateur boxing clubs in Ireland 16–25 years old; subjects had to complete minimum of 40 bouts

Prospective, observational




20 selected randomly (38%)

Many lost because of strict exclusion criteria; study of boxing, not brain injury; flawed comparison group in that controls also had concussion; differentiation in rate of concussion in cases, controls








Exclusion criteria: excess alcohol consumption (> 20 standard drinks/week or > 4 drinks/day)



Study Design

Population (Where Appropriate)




Enrolled (Response Rate)

Porter, 2003

Neuropsychologic impairment

Prospective, observational

20 male boxers from amateur boxing clubs in Ireland 16–25 years old; subjects had to complete a minimum of 40 bouts

See comments above




1 case and 2 controls lost to followup


NOTE: ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, CHSA = Canadian Study of Health and Aging, CT = computed tomography, DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., ED = emergency department, GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale, GSW = gunshot wound, ICD-10 = International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th revision, LLI = lower-limb injury, LOC = loss of consciousness, MA = Massachusetts, MN = Minnesota, MS = multiple sclerosis, MTBI = mild traumatic brain injury, MVA = motor vehicle accident, PCS = postconcussion syndrome, PD = Parkinson disease, PPCSC = predictors of postconcussion symptom complex, PTA = posttraumatic amnesia, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, TBI = traumatic brain injury, TCDB = Traumatic Coma Databank, UK = United Kingdom, US = United States, VA = Veterans Affairs, VHIS = Vietnam Head Injury Study, WA = Washington.

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