Study Design


Type of TBI: Mild, Moderate, Severe; Blunt, Penetrating, Blast

Health Outcomes or Outcome Measures



Comments or Limitations

Corkin et al., 1989


84 World War II veterans: 57 with penetrating head injury, 27 with peripheral nerve injury

Penetrating head injury; injury severity determined by number of cortical lobes involved, presence of tantalum plate, history of seizures, use of anticonvulsant medication

AGCT (including Total, Vocabulary, Arithmetic, Block counting subscales), figure-ground discrimination (measured with Hidden Figures Test)

10 years after end of war (in 1950s), TBI group had poorer performance on both cognitive tests

Matched with respect to age, premorbid intelligence, premorbid education

Existence of baseline performance, retesting at 10 and 40 years after penetrating brain injury compared with appropriate controls are strengths of study; possible limitation is how representative the subjects were of all those injured in World War II; subsamples selected from 314 studied by Teuber and Weinstein (1956, 1957); age, performance correlated only in brain-injured subjects, so age-related factors might have contributed to exacerbated decline

(This population was first seen in Teuber’s NY laboratory)

18–34 years old at time of injury, first testing 10 years after injury (1950s), and testing 40 years after injury (1980s)

30 years after war, TBI veterans, as a group, exhibited even poorer performance on every cognitive measure except vocabulary, which was constant

Grafman et al., 1988

Prospective, long-term followup of Vietnam War veterans (Part of VHIS)

263 brain-injured veterans, 64 uninjured controls matched on preinjury AFQT scores

Penetrating head injury

Cognitive-outcome, AFQT

Preinjury AFQT score was most predictive factor for postinjury intelligence scores, followed by brain-volume loss, location of injury; preinjury

ANOVAs, multiple regression analysis performed to assess association between size and location of


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