Study Design


Type of TBI

Health Outcomes or Outcome Measures



Comments or Limitations

Teasdale and Engberg, 2001


145,440 people discharged from hospital with primary or secondary diagnosis of TBI who survived 1 mo after discharge, sampled from Danish National Hospital Registry in 1979– 1993, compared with general population

Mild TBI according to following diagnostic categories: concussion (126,114), cranial fracture (7,560), cerebral contusion or traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (11,766)

Suicide as function of diagnosis (concussion, fracture, lesion); from National Cause of Death Registry

Suicide in TBI discharge group compared with Danish population

Stratified by age, sex; controlled for substance use

Nationally representative sample



Concussion: SMR, 3.02 (95% CI 2.82– 3.25); fracture: SMR, 2.69 (95% CI 2.01–3.59); lesion: SMR, 4.05 (95% CI 3.33–4.93)


Possible underreporting of suicides; accuracy of hospital records





No uninjured control group






Women had higher rates of suicide than men in three diagnostic groups; mortality greater in patients injured at age of 21–60 years than in those injured when younger or older



NOTE: CI = confidence interval, ICD = International Classification of Diseases, MVC = motor-vehicle crash, PTA = posttraumatic amnesia, SMR = standardized mortality ratio, TBI = traumatic brain injury.

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