TBI (Schnyder et al., 2001; Jorge et al., 1993). A recent study by Sayer et al. (2008) of 188 service members who sustained blast or other injuries during OIF or OEF found no difference in the prevalence of anxiety between soldiers exposed to blasts and those exposed to other sources of injury.


Only one study examined the prevalence of panic disorders after TBI (Deb et al., 1999). The authors reported that panic disorder was present in 9% compared with 0.8% of the general population.

Summary and Conclusion

The committee reviewed six primary studies and 10 secondary studies of TBI and PTSD and concluded that the association between a mild TBI and PTSD appears to be different between military and civilian populations. Two of the primary studies and three of the secondary studies were conducted in military populations. The primary studies, which were conducted in military personnel who served in the Gulf War, reported statistically significant associations between TBI and PTSD, but two of the secondary studies found no difference in prevalence with anxiety disorders or PTSD. In contrast, the primary studies conducted in civilian populations did not find an association between TBI and PTSD although an association could not be excluded on the basis of the findings of the secondary studies.

The committee concludes, on the basis of its evaluation, that there is limited/suggestive evidence of an association between mild TBI and PTSD in Gulf War military populations.


The committee concludes, on the basis of its evaluation, that there is inadequate/insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between mild TBI and PTSD in civilian populations.



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