Study Design


Type of TBI

Health Outcomes or Outcome Measures



Comments or Limitations






visits, higher numbers of outcomes or symptoms



Schneiderman et al., 2008


7,259 veterans of OIF, OEF living in Northern Virginia, Maryland, Washington, DC, or eastern West Virginia; 2,235 (31%) returned questionnaires


PTSD, postconcussive symptoms

11% of respondents screened positive for PTSD; factors associated with PTSD included sustained multiple injuries (prevalence ratio, 3.71 for three or more; 95% CI, 2.23–6.19), combat mild TBI (prevalence ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.72–3.28)








Postconcussive symptoms strongly associated with PTSD score



NOTE: CAPS = Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview, ISS = Injury Severity Score, IV = intravenous, LOC = loss of consciousness, MVA = motor-vehicle accident, OEF = Operation Enduring Freedom, OIF = Operation Iraqi Freedom, PCS = postconcussive symptom, PTA = posttraumatic amnesia, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, TBI = traumatic brain injury.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement