Reference

Study Design

Population

Type of TBI

Health Outcomes or Outcome Measures

Results

Adjustments

Comments or Limitations

 

 

 

 

 

visits, higher numbers of outcomes or symptoms

 

 

Schneiderman et al., 2008

Cross-sectional

7,259 veterans of OIF, OEF living in Northern Virginia, Maryland, Washington, DC, or eastern West Virginia; 2,235 (31%) returned questionnaires

Mild

PTSD, postconcussive symptoms

11% of respondents screened positive for PTSD; factors associated with PTSD included sustained multiple injuries (prevalence ratio, 3.71 for three or more; 95% CI, 2.23–6.19), combat mild TBI (prevalence ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.72–3.28)

 

Self-reported

 

 

 

 

 

Postconcussive symptoms strongly associated with PTSD score

 

 

NOTE: CAPS = Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview, ISS = Injury Severity Score, IV = intravenous, LOC = loss of consciousness, MVA = motor-vehicle accident, OEF = Operation Enduring Freedom, OIF = Operation Iraqi Freedom, PCS = postconcussive symptom, PTA = posttraumatic amnesia, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, TBI = traumatic brain injury.



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