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Gulf War and Health, Volume 7: Long-Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury
According to the latest experimental results, the extent and types of primary blast-induced injuries depend not only on the peak of the overpressure but on other characteristics, such as the number of overpressure peaks, the lag between overpressure peaks, the shear fronts between overpressure peaks, frequency resonance, and electromagnetic pulse.
Previously, exposure to blast overpressure was considered to damage primarily gas-containing organs or those containing structures of different specific weights (such as ears, lungs, and the gastrointestinal tract) (Benzinger, 1950; Clemedson, 1956; Phillips and Zajtchuk, 1989). Therefore, most research focused on the mechanisms of blast injuries within gas-containing organs or organ systems, primary BINT was underestimated, and safety recommendations (Table 2.1) focused on the injurious effects of blast on extracerebral body parts and organs and not on hidden brain damage and potential neurologic consequences.
TABLE 2.3 Summary of Most Important Body-System Injuries Induced by Concomitant Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Effects of Blast