TABLE 3.2 US TBI Incidence Studies: Case Identification, Data Source, and TBI Severity Scoring

Reference

Year(s) of Data

Location

Case Definition and Data Source

TBI Severity Criteria and Scoring

Annegers et al., 1980

1935 to 1974

Olmstead County, MN

Record linkage with head injury, with concussion, with LOC, PTA, neurological signs of brain injury or skull fracture concussion, with LOC, PTA, neurologicsigns of TBI

Fatal: (< 28 days); Severe: intracranial hematoma, contusion or LOC > 24 hours, or PTA > 24 hours; Moderate: LOC or PTA 30 minutes to 24 hours, skull fracture, or both; Mild: LOC or PTA < 30 minutes without skull fracture

Klauber et al., 1981

1978

San Diego County, CA

ICDA-8 Codes 800, 801, 804 806, and 850–854 with hospital admission diagnosis or cause of death with skull fracture, LOC, PTA neurological

GCS of 3, 4–5, 6–7, 8–15

Rimel, 1981

1977 to 1979

Central Virginia

CNS referral patients with significant head injury admitted to neurosurgical service unit. Prehospital deaths from medical examiner

GCS (3–5, 6–8, 9–11, 12–15); severe = < 8; moderate = 9–11; mild = 12–15

Jagger et al., 1984b

1978

North Central Virginia

Patients within defined service area with overnight stay, and documented head injuries

Not reported

Kraus et al., 1984

1981

San Diego County, CA

Physician-diagnosed physical damage from acute mechanical energy exchange resulting in concussion, hemorrhage, contusion, or laceration of brain

Modified GCS: severe ≤ 8; moderate = 9–11; plus hospital stay of 4–8 hours and brain surgery, or abnormal CT, or GCS 9–12; mild = all others, GCS 13–15

Whitman et al., 1984

1979 to 1980

Inner city Chicago and Evanston, IL

Any hospital discharge diagnosis of ICD-9-CM 800–804, 830, 850–854, 873, 920, 959. Injury within 7 days prior to hospital visit and blow to head/face with LOC, or laceration of scalp or forehead

(1) Fatal; (2) Severe = intracranial hematoma, LOC /PTA > 24 hours contusion; (3) Moderate + LOC or PTA 30 minutes to < 24 hours; (4) Mild + LOC or PTA < 30 minutes; (5) Trivial + remainder

Fife et al., 1986

1979 to 1980

Rhode Island

All admissions to Rhode Island hospitals Professional Activities Study (PAS) using ICD-9 codes 800–801.9, 803–804.9, 850–854.9

Severity not evaluated

Fife, 1987

1977 to 1981

US

US National Health Interview Survey translated rates ICD codes 800–801.9, 803–803.9, 850–854.9

Severity not evaluated



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