TABLE 3.3 Non-US Incidence Studies:Case Identification, Data Source, and TBI Severity Score

Reference

Year(s) of Data

Location

Case Definition and Data Source

TBI Severity Criteria and Scoring

Jennett and MacMillan, 1981

1974

England, Wales and Scotland

Death records, hospital admission records with ICD 800, 801, 803, 804, 850–854

Not reported

Selecki et al., 1981

1977

New South Wales and South Australia

Hospital inpatient statistics of Health Commission ICD-8 for principal diagnosis

Not reported

Servadei et al., 1985

1981 to 1982

San Marino Republic

Medical record review with those with skull fracture or LOC hospital admitted

Evaluated by GCS but not reported

Wang et al., 1986

1983

Urban areas of China

Survey of 6 cities with door-to-door interviews and medical record followup

Survey included only a survival population.

Severity not evaluated

Nestvold et al., 1988

1974

Central Norway, Akershus County (Oslo)

Prospective identification by surgeons on duty case inclusion with neurological symptoms

Survey ranked by length of PTA: None = 1, < 0.5 hr = 2, 0.5–6 hr = 3, 6–24 hr = 4, 1–2 days = 5, 3–7 days = 6, > 7 days = 7

Servadei et al., 1988

1981 to 1982

Ravenna, Italy

ED identification plus hospital admission and record review

GCS; 3–5, 6–8, 9-12, 13–15

Badcock, 1988

1984

South Australia

Prospective study of all ED visits, hospital admissions and prehospital deaths

Length of PTA: none, < 5 min, 5–60 min, 1–24 hrs, 1–7 days, 1–4 wks, > 4 wks

Tiret et al., 1990

1986

Aquitaine, France

Prehospital deaths and hospital admissions survey by medical staff using 180 possible head injury codes using AIS and ISS

Severity by 3 classes based on PTA of coma > 6 hrs = severe, PTA 15 min to 6 hrs = moderate, PTA, 15 min = mild

Levi et al., 1990

1984 to 1988

Northern Israel

Prospective patient identification from referral to neurological service records

GCS used but not recorded

Nell and Brown, 1991

1986

Johannesburg, South Africa

Inpatient admission with screening ICD-9 codes 800–804, 850–854, 293, 294, 310, 870–873, 950–951, 958, 345, 347, 348, 253.9

GCS, mild = 13–15, moderate = 7–12 and severe = 3–6



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