Transportation Research Board Special Report 291
I planning, administration, and environment
VIII freight transportation (multimodal)
IX marine transportation
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Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
This report was sponsored by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.
Cover design by Beth Schlenoff, Beth Schlenoff Design.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on the St. Lawrence Seaway: Options to Eliminate Introduction of Nonindigenous Species into the Great Lakes, Phase 2.
Great Lakes shipping, trade, and aquatic invasive species / Committee on the St. Lawrence Seaway: Options to Eliminate Introduction of Nonindigenous Species into the Great Lakes, Phase 2, Transportation Research Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies.
p. cm.—(Transportation Research Board special report ; 291)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Nonindigenous aquatic pests—Control—Great Lakes (North America) 2. Discharge of ballast water—Environmental aspects—Great Lakes (North America) 3. Animal introduction—Great Lakes (North America)—Prevention. 4. Ballast water—Purification—Great Lakes (North America) I. Title.