Although the decision as to which measures will be adopted ultimately rests with the decision makers, the Management Team and Advisory Panel must attempt to address the concept of acceptable risk in formulating their recommendations. The acceptable level of risk will vary among different stakeholders. A collaborative effort will be necessary to understand the viewpoints of different stakeholders and meld them into an acceptance criterion.

Once decisions have been made and risk reduction measures implemented, there should be a process for monitoring the effectiveness of the measures and the overall acceptability of system risk. The final report should include a proposed structure for this ongoing risk management process, which should include metrics for the continuous monitoring of risk. Specific institutional arrangements will likely be necessary to foster continued discussion among a broad range of stakeholders regarding the residual risk in the system and the adequacy of the measures instituted to control that risk. Experience with other systems having the complexity of shipping through the Aleutian Islands suggests that risk cannot be reduced to zero by risk reduction measures that can feasibly be undertaken.



NRC National Research Council

TRB Transportation Research Board

USCG U.S. Coast Guard

Etkin, D. S. 2003. Bio-Economic Modeling for Oil Spills from Tanker/Freighter Groundings on Rock Pinnacles in San Francisco Bay. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento, Calif.

McCay, D. F., J. J. Rowe, N. Whittier, S. Sankaranarayanan, and D. S. Etkin. 2003. Estimation of Potential Impacts and Natural Resource Damages of Oil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 107, No. 1–2, pp. 11–25.

NRC. 2007. Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

TRB. 2001. Special Report 259: Environmental Performance of Tanker Designs in Collision and Grounding: Method for Comparison. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

USCG. 1999. Regulatory Assessment: Use of Tugs to Protect Against Oil Spills in the Puget Sound Area. Report No. 9522-002.

USCG. 2008. Risk-Based Decision Making Guidelines (RBDM), Vol. 1. Washington, D.C.

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