Appendix B
Speakers and Panelists

The Honorable Paul Grant Rogers, J.D., is a partner in the Washington, DC, office of Hogan & Hartson L.L.P. and a member of the firm’s Health Group. His areas of practice include administrative and regulatory, antitrust, health, and environmental law; legislative strategy; and health policy. He served for 24 years as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the 11th District of Florida. Of those 24 years, he spent 8 as the chairman of the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment and became nationally recognized as an innovative leader. In Congress he became known as “Mr. Health.”

Some of the prominent pieces of legislation that he sponsored and played a major role in enacting are the National Cancer Act of 1971 and 1977; the Health Manpower Training Act; the Heart, Blood Vessel, Lung and Blood Act; the Research on Aging Act; the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970; the Medical Device Amendments of 1976; the Emergency Medical Services Act; the Health Maintenance Organization Act; the Clean Air Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; the Radiation Health Safety Act; the Medicare-Medicaid Anti-Fraud and Abuse Amendments of 1977; and the Sea Grant College Act.

Mr. Rogers joined Hogan & Hartson, LLP, in January 1979. He has represented a wide range of providers, manufacturers, suppliers, and associations in the health care field in matters involving antitrust, federal and state legislation, reimbursement, litigation, food and drug regulation, international trade, government grant and contract, and corporate and tax matters. He is a member of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law Committee of the American Bar Association and was made an honorary member of the American Health Lawyers Association.

He is chairman of the National Osteoporosis Foundation, Research!America, the Trustees of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, and the Friends of the National Library of Medicine and co-chairman of the National Leadership Coalition on Health Care. He serves as a director or trustee on the following boards: the Scripps Research Institute, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the Foundation



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Appendix B Speakers and Panelists The Honorable Paul Grant Rogers, J.D., is a partner in the Washington, DC, office of Hogan & Hartson L.L.P. and a member of the firm’s Health Group. His areas of practice include administrative and regulatory, antitrust, health, and envi- ronmental law; legislative strategy; and health policy. He served for 24 years as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the 11th District of Florida. Of those 24 years, he spent 8 as the chairman of the House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment and became nationally recognized as an innovative leader. In Congress he became known as “Mr. Health.” Some of the prominent pieces of legislation that he sponsored and played a major role in enacting are the National Cancer Act of 1971 and 1977; the Health Manpower Training Act; the Heart, Blood Vessel, Lung and Blood Act; the Research on Aging Act; the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970; the Medical Device Amendments of 1976; the Emergency Medical Services Act; the Health Maintenance Organization Act; the Clean Air Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act; the Radiation Health Safety Act; the Medicare-Medicaid Anti-Fraud and Abuse Amendments of 1977; and the Sea Grant College Act. Mr. Rogers joined Hogan & Hartson, LLP, in January 1979. He has repre- sented a wide range of providers, manufacturers, suppliers, and associations in the health care field in matters involving antitrust, federal and state legislation, reimbursement, litigation, food and drug regulation, international trade, govern- ment grant and contract, and corporate and tax matters. He is a member of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law Committee of the American Bar Association and was made an honorary member of the American Health Lawyers Association. He is chairman of the National Osteoporosis Foundation, Research!America, the Trustees of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, and the Friends of the National Library of Medicine and co-chairman of the National Leadership Coalition on Health Care. He serves as a director or trustee on the following boards: the Scripps Research Institute, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, the Foundation 

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 EnVIRonMEntaL HEaLtH SCIEnCES DECISIon MaKInG for Biomedical Research, the American Cancer Society, and the CDC Foundation. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and served as a member of the Advisory Committee on Civil Rules of the Judicial Conference of the United States (1979–1984). He has received honorary degrees from 15 universities. Mr. Rogers was awarded the Public Welfare Medal by the National Academy of Sciences in 1982; the Year 2000 Award from the National Cancer Institute in 1987; the 1991 Health Policy Award from the American Health Lawyers Asso- ciation; the Founders Award from the National Coalition for Cancer Research in 1992; the 1993 Albert Lasker Award for Public Service; the 1994 APhA Hugo Schaefer Award; the 1994 AlliedSignal Achievement Award in Aging; the 1994 Distinguished Leadership Award from the University of Florida Health Sciences Center; the 1995 NOF Leadership Award; the 1996 Maxwell Finland Award; the 1997 American Cancer Society Distinguished Service Award; the National Com- munity Pharmacists Association 1998 Distinguished American Award; and the 1999 IONA’s Outstanding Citizen award. He was also the first recipient (1999) of the Association of Academic Health Centers’ Paul G. Rogers Award. By an act of Congress, the main plaza at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) was designated as the Paul G. Rogers Plaza and dedicated on June 12, 2001. Mr. Rogers is a member of the Harvard School of Public Health Dean’s Council, the University of Chicago’s Council for the Division of the Biological Sciences and the Pritzker School of Medicine, Washington University’s National Council of the School of Medicine, and the University of Pennsylvania’s Medi- cal Center Trustee Board. A graduate of the University of Florida in 1948, he is a member of the bars of Florida and the District of Columbia and is admitted to practice before the federal courts in several districts, federal courts of appeal, and the United States Supreme Court. Lynn R. Goldman, M.D., M.S., M.P.H., a pediatrician and an epidemiologist, is a professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where her areas of focus are environmental health policy, public health practice, and children’s environmental health. Her appointment is in the Department of Envi- ronmental Health Sciences, with a joint appointment in the Department of Health Policy and Management. In 1993, she was appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate to serve as assistant administrator for the EPA’s Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS). Serving in that position for more than 5 years, she was responsible for the nation’s pesticide, toxic substances, and pollution prevention laws. Under her watch, EPA expanded right-to-know under the Tox- ics Release Inventory and overhauled the nation’s pesticide laws. She made significant progress on the issues of testing of high-volume industrial chemicals and identification of chemicals that disrupt endocrine systems. At EPA she was successful in promoting children’s health issues and furthering the international agenda for global chemical safety.

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 appEnDIX B Prior to joining EPA, Goldman served in several positions in the California Department of Health Services, most recently as head of the Division of Envi- ronmental and Occupational Disease Control. She has conducted public health investigations on pesticides, childhood lead poisoning, and other environmental hazards. She has a B.S. in conservation of natural resources from the University of California, Berkeley, an M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and an M.D. from the University of California, San Francisco. She completed pediatric training at Children’s Hospital in Oakland, California. She has served on numerous boards and expert committees, including the Committee on Environmental Health of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and numerous expert committees for the National Acad- emies. She currently is vice chair of the Institute of Medicine’s Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences and served as the chair of the IOM Gulf War and Health Study. John Balbus, M.D., M.P.H., is a senior scientist and director of the health pro- gram for the Environmental Defense Fund. He holds adjunct appointments at both the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. He received his A.B. degree in biochemistry from Harvard University, his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, and his M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. Vincent Cogliano, Ph.D., serves as head of the IaRC Monographs programme at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (part of the World Health Organization) in Lyon, France. IaRC Monographs is a series of scientific reviews identifying environmental factors that can increase the risk of human cancer. Cogliano received his Ph.D. from Cornell University, then worked for 20 years in quantitative risk assessment at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Washington. Professional interests include cancer hazard assessment, qualitative and quantitative health risk assessment in general, and identification of susceptible populations and life stages. David Eaton, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in pharmacology from the University of Kansas Medical Center in 1978. He joined the faculty of the University of Washington (UW) in 1979 and is professor and director of the Center for Eco- genetics and Environmental Health at UW, as well as professor of public health genetics, adjunct professor of medicinal chemistry, and affiliate member of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. He currently also serves as associ- ate vice provost for research at UW and was previously the associate dean for research in the School of Public Health. Nationally, he has served as secretary and president of the Society of Toxicology and serves on numerous scientific advisory boards for other centers and program grants. He served on the National

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 EnVIRonMEntaL HEaLtH SCIEnCES DECISIon MaKInG Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) Board of Envi- ronmental Studies and Toxicology from 1996 to 1999 and on the NAS/NRC Committee on Arsenic and Drinking Water (2001 update); he recently chaired the NAS/NRC/IOM Committee on Assessment of the Health Implications of Exposure to Dioxin. He maintains his own active research and teaching program focused on the area of the molecular basis for environmental causes of cancer, with an emphasis on how chemical carcinogens are metabolized in the liver. He has published over 150 scientific articles and book chapters in the field of toxicology and risk assessment, is an elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Academy of Toxicological Sciences, and is a lifetime national associate of the National Academies. William H. Farland, Ph.D., joined Colorado State University in 2006 as the vice president for research, bringing decades of interdisciplinary research lead- ership experience to the position. He serves as the chief institutional advocate and facilitator for faculty research activities and is responsible for programmatic excellence in research. Specific responsibilities of the position include oversight and promotion of external research funding and associated regulations, needs, and capabilities; serving as liaison with federal research officials and agencies; identification of research opportunities; and development and oversight of inter- disciplinary programs and research centers. Previously, he was the highest ranking career scientist at the Environmental Protection Agency, serving as chief scientist in the Science Advisor’s Office as well as acting deputy assistant administrator for science in the Office of Research and Development (ORD). Prior to that appointment, he was director of ORD’s National Center for Environmental Assessment, which has major responsibility for the conduct of chemical-specific risk assessments in support of EPA regula- tory programs, the development of agency-wide guidance on risk assessment, and the conduct of research to improve risk assessment. His 27-year federal career has been characterized by a commitment to the development of national and international approaches to the testing and assessment of the fate and effects of environmental agents. He has led the EPA’s extensive reassessment of the expo- sure and health effects of dioxin and related compounds. Farland holds a Ph.D. (1976) from the University of California, Los Angeles, in cell biology and biochemistry and a master’s in zoology. He obtained his bachelor’s degree from Loyola University in Los Angeles. He serves on a number of executive-level committees and advisory boards in the federal gov- ernment. He is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Council of the Risk Sciences and Public Policy Institute at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Hygiene and Public Health, a public member of the American Chemistry Council’s Strategic Science Team for its Long-Term Research Program, and several other industry- and university-based science advisory panels. In 2002, he was recognized by the Society for Risk Analysis with the Outstanding Risk

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 appEnDIX B Practitioner Award. He continues to teach and publish and has been a mem- ber of the editorial board Risk analysis since 1987 and Environmental Health perspectives since 1997. Bernard D. Goldstein, M.D., is a professor in the University of Pittsburgh’s Graduate School of Public Health, where he was previously dean. He served as the director of the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, a joint program of Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, from 1986 to 2001. He was the chair of the Department of Environmen- tal and Community Medicine, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, from 1980 to 2001. He was the first principal investigator of the Consortium of Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation. He served as acting dean of the UMDNJ–School of Public Health in 1998-1999, the first year of its formation. He earned his B.S. degree at the University of Wisconsin in 1958 and his M.D. degree at New York University School of Medicine in 1962. He is a physician, board certified both in internal medicine and hematology and in toxicology. He was assistant administrator for research and development in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency from 1983 to 1985. His past activities include member and chairman of the NIH Toxicology Study Section and the EPA’s Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; chair of the Institute of Medicine’s Commit- tee on the Role of the Physician in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, the National Research Council’s Committees on Biomarkers in Environmental Health Research and Risk Assessment Methodology, and the Industry Panel of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Health and Environment. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, where he has chaired the Section on Public Health, Biostatistics, and Epidemiology and served on the Committee on Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs. He is also president-elect of the Society for Risk Analysis, vice president of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, and a member of the National Advi- sory Environmental Health Sciences Council. He is the author of over 200 articles and book chapters related to environmental health sciences and to public policy. Myron Harrison, M.D., M.P.H., is the senior health adviser for ExxonMobil Corporation and a member of its corporate Safety, Health and Environment staff. Previously, he served as the medical director of Exxon’s U.S. Medicine and Occupational Health Department. Before specializing in the field of occupational medicine, he practiced emergency medicine for 10 years. He earned a master’s of public health degree at Columbia University and is a past president of the Texas College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Dale B. Hattis, Ph.D., is research professor with the George Perkins Marsh Institute at Clark University. For the past three decades, he has been engaged in

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8 EnVIRonMEntaL HEaLtH SCIEnCES DECISIon MaKInG the development and application of methodology to assess the health, ecological, and economic impacts of regulatory actions. His work has focused on approaches to incorporate interindividual vari- ability data and quantitative mechanistic information into risk assessments for both cancer and noncancer endpoints. Recent research has explored age-related differences in sensitivity to carcinogenesis and other effects, a taxonomy of dif- ferent nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis with likely differential implications for age-related sensitivity, PBPK modeling of acrylamide dose in rats and humans, and mechanism-based dose-response modeling of carcinogenic effects from ionizing radiation. He is a leader in efforts to replace the current system of uncertainty factors with distributions based on empirical observations. He is a member of the Environmental Health Committee of the EPA Science Advisory Board, and for several years he has served as a member of the Food Quality Protection Act Science Review Board. In 2007, he was chair of the Dose Response Specialty Group of the Society for Risk Analysis. He has also served as a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Estimating the Health-Risk-Reduction Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations. He has been a councillor and is a fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis and serves on the editorial board of its journal, Risk analysis. He holds a Ph.D. in genetics from Stanford University and a B.A. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. Richard J. Jackson, M.D., M.P.H., is professor of environmental health at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health. In June 2005, he received the Presidential Distinguished Executive Award for his outstanding lead- ership and extraordinary achievement in service to the nation, and in particular to improving environmental public health. He has served in many leadership positions, including as the state health officer for the state of California. For nine years he was director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Center for Environmental Health in Atlanta. A native of Newark, New Jersey, he is a graduate of the University of California School of Medicine at San Francisco, where he began his residency as a pediatrician. During his residency he took time off for a two-year stint with CDC as an officer in the Epidemic Intel- ligence Service (EIS). He then obtained a master’s degree in public health from the University of California, Berkeley, and began work as a public health medi- cal officer with the California Department of Health Services. His contributions include successfully pushing for passage of California’s Birth Defects Prevention Act, assisting in the establishment of California’s tough guidelines for reporting pesticide use, and major contributions to a National Academies report on pesti- cides in the Diets of Infants and Children, which helped lead to passage of the Food Quality Protection Act in 1996. Selected to be director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health in 1994, Jackson studied and addressed such issues as cancer, asthma,

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 appEnDIX B radiation effects, pesticide exposure, and toxicology, especially lead poisoning in children. In recent years, he has taken on the critically important and underap- preciated environmental health issue of the built environment, collaborating with other professionals to create a website called Designing and Building Healthy Places (http://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces). His chief goal at present is to recruit and train new leaders in environmental health, drawing young people whose backgrounds might not make them aware of the opportunities for such a mean- ingful career. In August 2003, he became the CDC director’s senior adviser and co-lead on CDC’s strategic planning process areas related to health systems. J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P., joined the Institute of Medicine as senior scholar in 2005 to help develop the IOM leadership on evidence-based medicine and expansion of research on the comparative effectiveness of clinical interven- tions. From 1999 to 2005, he served as senior vice president and founding direc- tor of the Health Group, as well as counselor to the president, at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). Much of his career has been spent as a participant and leader in national policy in disease prevention and health promotion, includ- ing continuous appointment, from 1977 to 1995, as assistant surgeon general and deputy assistant secretary for health (disease prevention and health promo- tion) through the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton administrations. During this period, he led the development of Healthy people, the nation’s prevention agenda, and the creation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, a body that has for two decades evaluated the effectiveness of clinical preven- tive services and pioneered the advance of evidence-based medicine. Other pro- grams and policies launched at his initiative include the first Health and Human Services–U.S. Department of Agriculture (HHS–USDA) Dietary Guidelines for americans, now in its sixth edition (first edition co-produced with USDA in 1980) and the first Surgeon General’s Report on nutrition and Health (1988); the work of the Public Health Functions Steering Committee to develop the 0 Essen- tial Services of public Health; the RWJF Health & Society Scholars program; the RWJF Young Epidemiology Scholars program; and the RWJF active Living family of programs. His current and recent board memberships include the IOM Committee on Children’s Food Marketing (chair), the NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on Multivitamins in Chronic Disease Prevention (chair), the Health Professionals Roundtable on Preventive Services (chair), the board of directors of the Nemours Foundation; the board of directors of the Partnership for Prevention, and the board of trustees of the United Way of the National Capital Area (chair, resource development). His international service includes appointments as chair of the World Bank/ European Commission Task Force on postwar reconstruction of the health sec- tor in Bosnia in 1995–1996; state coordinator for the World Health Organiza- tion smallpox eradication program in Uttar Pradesh, India, in 1974–1975; and coordinator for U.S.–Eastern European health programs in 1972–1973. He is an

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0 EnVIRonMEntaL HEaLtH SCIEnCES DECISIon MaKInG elected member of the IOM, a fellow of the American College of Epidemiology, and a fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. Other recognitions include the Wilbur Cohen Award, the Porter Prize, the National Health Leader of the Year Award, and the Distinguished Service Medal of the U.S. Public Health Service. He has earned degrees in political science, medicine, and public policy from the University of California, Berkeley; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Harvard University. David Michaels, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a scientist and former government regula- tor. During the Clinton administration, he was assistant secretary of energy for environment, safety and health, responsible for protecting the health and safety of workers, neighboring communities, and the environment surrounding the nation’s nuclear weapons facilities. He is research professor and associate chairman of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health at The George Washing- ton University School of Public Health and Health Services, where he directs The Project on Scientific Knowledge and Public Policy (www.DefendingScience.org). In 2006, he received the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award for his work on behalf of nuclear weapons workers and for his advocacy for scientific integrity. He is the author of the forthcoming book Doubt Is their product: How Industry’s assault on Science threatens Your Health (Oxford University Press, 2008). Thomas H. Murray, Ph.D., is president of The Hastings Center. He was for- merly the director of the Center for Biomedical Ethics in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University, where he was also the Susan E. Watson professor of bioethics. He is a founding editor of the journal Medical Humani- ties Review and is on the editorial boards of the Hastings Center Report; Human Gene therapy; politics and the Life Sciences; Cloning, Science, and policy; Medscape General Medicine teaching Ethics; the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry; and the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. He served as president of the Soci- ety for Health and Human Values and of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. He has testified before many congressional committees and is the author of more than 200 publications. His most recent books are the Worth of a Child (University of California Press); Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: an Introductory text with Readings and Case Studies (Blackwell Publishers, edited with Bill Fulford and Donna Dickenson); the Cultures of Caregiving: Conflict and Common Ground among families, Health professionals and policy Makers (edited with Carol Levine); and Genetic ties and the family: the Impact of pater- nity testing on parents and Children (edited with Mark A. Rothstein, Gregory E. Kaebnick, and Mary Anderlik Majumder). He is also editor, with Maxwell J. Mehlman, of the Encyclopedia of Ethical, Legal and policy Issues in Biotechnol- ogy (John Wiley & Sons, 2000). In January 2004, he received an honorary doctor of medicine degree from Uppsala University.

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 appEnDIX B Mary O’Brien, Ph.D., has worked as a staff scientist and organizer for the past 26 years with toxics and conservation organizations, including the Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, the Environmental Research Foundation, the Science and Environmental Health Network, and the Hells Canyon Preserva- tion Council. From 1992 to 1994 she taught as assistant professor in the gradu- ate Environmental Studies Program at the University of Montana. She currently works for Grand Canyon Trust on the conservation of wildlife habitat and native ecosystems in southern Utah’s three national forests. Her book, Making Better Environmental Decisions: an alternative to Risk assessment (MIT Press, 2000), focuses on the power of alternatives assessments to leverage positive change. Kenneth Olden, Ph.D., Sc.D., L.H.D., is the most recent past director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser- vices. He held these positions from 1991 to 2005. He was the first African American to become director of one of the NIH institutes. He has returned full time to his research position as chief of The Metastasis Group in the Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis at the NIEHS, which he also held while director. He held the position of Yerby visiting professor at the Harvard School of Public Health for the academic year 2006–2007. He received his Ph.D. in cell biology/biochemistry from Temple University. He is the recipient of several honorary degrees, namely, Sc.D. degrees from Metropolitan University, San Juan, Puerto Rico; the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; and the University of Rochester and an honorary doc- torate of science from Tulane University. He also holds an honorary L.H.D. from the College of Charleston. After completing his Ph.D. degree, he was a research fellow and instructor of physiology at Harvard University (1970–1974); a senior staff fellow and then a research biologist at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in the Division of Cancer Biology and Diagnosis at the National Cancer Institute, NIH (1974–1979); associate director for research in the Howard University Can- cer Center and associate professor of oncology at the Howard University Medical School (1979–1982); professor of oncology and deputy director at the Howard University Cancer Center (1982–1985); and director (1985–1991), professor, and chair of the Department of Oncology (1985–1991). His honors and awards include the Toxicology Forum’s Distinguished Fellow Award, the Presidential Distinguished Executive Rank Award; and the Presiden- tial Meritorious Executive Rank Award for sustained extraordinary accomplish- ments; the HHS secretary’s Distinguished Service Award; the American College of Toxicology’s First Distinguished Service Award, the National Minority Health Leadership Award (2005); and an invitation to participate in the International Conference on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation sponsored by the Harvard School of Public Health (2006). Alone among institute directors, he was awarded three of the most prestigious awards in public health: the Calver Award (2002),

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 EnVIRonMEntaL HEaLtH SCIEnCES DECISIon MaKInG the Sedgwick Medal (2004), and the Julius B. Richmond Award (2005). He was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine in 1994 and appointed member of the Visiting Committee, Board of Overseers, of Harvard College (2007–2010). He is on the editorial board of numerous journals, serving in most instances as associate editor. He has been cited in Current Contents, Life Sciences for having published two of the 100 most-cited papers in 1978–1979. Over 28 visiting or postdoctorate fellows have trained in his laboratory, and he has published over 125 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals and more than 45 review articles and book chapters. He has chaired or cochaired numerous national and international meetings and has been an invited speaker or keynote speaker at over 150 sym- posia seminars. Christopher J. Portier, Ph.D., is associate director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), director of its Office of Risk Assess- ment Research, and leader of the Environmental Systems Biology (ESB) Research Group in the Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology. As associate director, he organizes and coordinates all research activities related to risk assessment both inside and outside the NIEHS with grantees and institutional collaborators. As head of ESB, he conducts research on quantifying and modeling the interactions of mammalian systems with environmental agents. Previously, he was director of the Environmental Toxicology Program and associate director of the National Toxicology Program. He received his Ph.D. in 1981 from the University of North Carolina in bio- statistics. He is an internationally recognized expert in the design and analysis of toxicology data and in risk assessment methodology. He has published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts and over 50 book chapters or reports covering such diverse topics as risk assessment, statistics, cancer biology, immu- nology, development, genetically modified foods, and genomics. He has received numerous awards, including the Spiegelman Award from the American Public Health Association and the Outstanding Practitioner of the Year Award from the Society for Risk Analysis. He has aided in the development of risk assessment guidelines for both national and international authorities and has either directed or contributed significantly to numerous risk assessments, most notably those for dioxins, aflatoxins, and electromagnetic fields. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of State, CDC, and EPA, he has led efforts by the U.S. government to begin research on the health effects of Agent Orange in Vietnam. He is currently an adviser to the Finnish Academy of Sciences on the Centers of Excellence Research Program and a member of a number of World Health Organization/ International Agency for Research on Cancer scientific committees. In the past 2 years, he has been invited to speak at over 50 scientific conferences, including international meetings in Vietnam, Germany, China, Japan, France, Australia, Italy, Finland, Switzerland, and Canada.

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 appEnDIX B Rena Steinzor, J.D., is a professor at the University of Maryland School of Law and teaches courses in risk assessment, critical issues in law and science, torts, and a survey of environmental law. During the course of her academic career, she has written extensively on efforts to reinvent environmental regulation in the United States, the use and misuse of science in environmental policy making, and the devolution of legal and administrative authority to the states. Steinzor is a founder and member of the executive committee of the board of the Center for Progressive Regulation (CPR) (www.progressiveregulation.org), a virtual think tank composed of 34 member scholars from universities across the United States. CPR is committed to developing and sharing knowledge and infor- mation, with the ultimate aim of preserving the fundamental value of the life and health of human beings and the natural environment. One component of CPR’s mission is to circulate academic papers, studies, and other analyses that promote public policy based on the multiple social values that motivated the enactment of the nation’s health, safety, and environmental laws. CPR seeks to inform the public about scholarship that envisions government as an arena in which mem- bers of society choose and preserve their collective values. CPR rejects the idea that government’s only function is to increase the economic efficiency of private markets. Before joining the law school faculty, Steinzor was the partner in charge of the environmental practice at Spiegel & McDiarmid, a Washington DC, law firm specializing in the representation of state and local government entities in the energy and environmental areas. Prior to joining the firm, she was counsel to the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation and Tourism of the House Energy and Commerce Committee, which was then chaired by James J. Florio (D-NJ). She advised the subcommittee during its consideration of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 and the Asbestos Hazard Emer- gency Response Act of 1986. She also served as an attorney adviser to Commis- sioner Patricia P. Bailey of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and worked as a consumer protection attorney at the FTC in various staff positions. She is a 1976 graduate of Columbia Law School and a 1971 graduate of the University of Wisconsin.

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