may expand its links to include emergency preparedness programs and databases of other agencies, such as state DOTs.

Conclusion

The terrorist attacks of September 11 and, more recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita have focused attention on disasters that may involve an evacuation. Federal law has long required local emergency planning officials to develop emergency plans that include an evacuation plan. However, detailed operational plans for the evacuation of major urban areas have not been a priority, except perhaps in some hurricane-prone areas. Moreover, the role that transit could play, particularly in evacuating those without access to private vehicles and those who need assistance, has only recently been acknowledged. The next chapter summarizes what is known about the potential role of transit and the determinants of transit use in an emergency evacuation.

References

Abbreviations

DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security

FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency

FTA Federal Transit Administration

GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office

ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

USDOT U.S. Department of Transportation

DHS. 2004. National Incident Management System. www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/NIMS-90-web.pdf.

DHS. 2006. Nationwide Plan Review, Phase 2 Report. Washington, D.C., June 16. www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/Prep_NationwidePlanReview.pdf.

DHS. 2007a. FY 2007 Homeland Security Grant Program, Program Guidance and Application Kit. Office of Grants and Training. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/odp/grants_hsgp.htm. Accessed July 31, 2007.

DHS. 2007b. National Response Framework, Mass Evacuation Incident Annex. Washington, D.C., July.



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