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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How Appendix E Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Catherine E. Snow (Chair) is the Henry Lee Shattuck professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her research interests include children’s language development as influenced by interaction with adults in home and preschool settings, literacy development as related to language skills and as influenced by home and school factors, and issues related to the acquisition of English oral and literacy skills by language-minority children. She has coauthored books on language development (e.g., Pragmatic Development with Anat Ninio) and on literacy development (e.g., Unfulfilled Expectations: Home and School Influences on Literacy with W. Barnes, J. Chandler, I. Goodman, and L. Hemphill) and published widely on these topics in refereed journals and edited volumes. Her contributions to the field include membership on several journal editorial boards, codirectorship for several years of the Child Language Data Exchange System, and editorship of Applied Psycholinguistics. She served as a board member at the Center for Applied Linguistics and as president of the American Educational Research Association. At the National Research Council (NRC), she was a member of the Committee on Establishing a Research Agenda on Schooling for Language Minority Children, chair of the Committee on Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children, and a member of the board of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. A member of the National Academy of
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How Education, Snow has held visiting appointments at the University of Cambridge, England, Universidad Autonoma in Madrid, and the Institute of Advanced Studies at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from McGill University and worked for several years in the linguistics department of the University of Amsterdam. Margaret Burchinal is a professor in the Department of Education at the University of California at Irvine and senior scientist at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, as well as a research professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has served as the primary statistician for many educational studies of early childhood, including the 11-state Pre-Kindergarten Evaluation for the National Center for Early Learning and Development; the longitudinal study of 1,300 children in the Study of Early Child Care of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; the 4-state evaluation of child care in the Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes Study; the 3-site study of family child care homes in the Family Child Care and Relative Care Study; and the Abecedarian and CARE Projects. As an applied methodologist, she has helped to demonstrate that such sophisticated methods as meta-analysis, fixed-effect modeling, hierarchical linear modeling, piecewise regression, and generalized estimating equations provide education researchers with advanced techniques to address important educational issues, such as whether child care quality measures are biased. In addition, she has pursued a substantive interest in early education as a means to improve school readiness for at-risk children. She has a Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Harriet A. Egertson is an independent early childhood education consultant. Until 2002, she was the administrator of the Office of Early Childhood Education in the Nebraska Department of Education. In that capacity, she also directed the Head Start–State Collaboration Project and the Even Start Family Literacy program and led the development of one of the first cross-auspice professional development initiatives in the nation. Currently she is contracted to work with the Council of Chief State School Officers
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How and several state departments of education on various projects related to early learning guidelines, curriculum, and assessment. Prior to going to the Nebraska Department of Education in 1975, she taught at the primary level in Oakland, California, and Fremont, Nebraska, and worked with a rural Head Start program in Nebraska. She has held leadership positions in several state and national professional organizations and served on nonprofit boards. She was a member of the National Education Goal 1 Technical Panel, which produced Principles and Recommendations for Early Childhood Assessments. She has a bachelor’s degree from San Francisco State University and a master’s degree in elementary education and administration and a Ph.D. in early childhood development from the University of Nebraska. Eugene K. Emory is professor of psychology at Emory University. His areas of expertise include clinical psychology, neuropsychology, behavioral perinatology, and fetal development. His primary research interests lie in such areas as prenatal brain, behavior, and cognition; perinatal stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation; maternal psychopathology (schizophrenia and depression) and fetal development; fetal brain imaging; and neurocognitive development. His secondary research interests include maternal psychopathology in expectant women, depression in welfare mothers, and effects of out-of-home and foster care on child psychological development. At the NRC, he was a member of the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Florida. David J. Francis is professor of quantitative methods and chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Houston, where he also serves as director of the Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics. He has authored or coauthored numerous peer-reviewed articles and book chapters and is a fellow of Division 5 (Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics) of the American Psychological Association. He currently serves on the independent review panel for the National Assessment of Title I, as well as the Reading and Writing Peer Review Panel of the Institute of Education Sciences. Previously he served as an official adviser to the U.S. Department of Education on assessment and
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How accountability during negotiated rule-making for the No Child Left Behind Act, as a member of the National Technical Advisory Group of the What Works Clearinghouse, and as a member of the National Literacy Panel for Language Minority Youth and Children. He is a codeveloper of the Texas Primary Reading Inventory and Tejas Lee early reading assessments. At the NRC, he is a member of the Board on Testing and Assessment (BOTA) and was a member of the Committee on Promising Education Practices. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Houston. Eugene E. García is vice president for education partnerships at Arizona State University. His role is to strengthen K-12 education in the state of Arizona by linking the university and the private sector, encompassing the coordination of teacher preparation across colleges and campuses in Arizona, as well as the implementation of the university–public school initiative to establish campus schools. He is also currently chairing the National Task Force on Early Education for Hispanics funded by the Foundation for Child Development and the Mailman Family Foundation. He has published extensively in the area of language teaching and bilingual development and is currently conducting research on effective schooling for linguistically and culturally diverse student populations. He is the author of Hispanic Education in the United States: Raíces y Alas; Understanding and Meeting the Challenge of Student Diversity; and Teaching and Learning in Two Languages: Bilingualism and Schooling in the United States. At the NRC, he served on the Committee on Scientific Principles in Educational Research: Exploration of Perspectives and Implications for OERI and the NRC/Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Adolescent Health and Development. He has a Ph.D. in human development from the University of Kansas. Kathleen Hebbeler is manager of the Community Services and Strategies Program in the Center for Education and Human Services at SRI International. She has more than 20 years of experience in research and evaluation of education, health, and social programs for children and adolescents. She has directed large-scale projects involving quantitative and qualitative methods and has extensive experience in longitudinal research. Since
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How joining SRI in 1992, she has conducted evaluations for federal and state agencies and private foundations, as well as training in evaluation design for a variety of audiences, with a special focus on identification and measurement of child and family outcomes. Currently, she is directing the Early Childhood Outcomes Center, a 5-year project designed to build consensus and provide national leadership around issues related to the measurement of outcomes for young children with disabilities and their families. She also is directing the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, which is examining services and outcomes for more than 3,300 infants and toddlers with disabilities in early intervention programs around the United States. She recently completed a 10-year evaluation of the Community Partnerships for Healthy Children, an initiative that used community collaboration and mobilization to improve the well-being of young children. She has authored numerous papers and presented at many national meetings in the areas of early childhood development, general and special education, community collaboration, and children’s health. She has a Ph.D. in human development and family studies from Cornell University. Eboni Howard is director of the Herr Research Center for Children and Social Policy at the Erikson Institute and holds the Frances Stott chair in early childhood policy research. She has extensive experience in evaluating program implementation and outcomes in the areas of childhood education, early intervention, welfare, family support, child abuse prevention, and foster care practices. She oversees projects in the areas of children’s mental health, social-emotional development, and quality of state-funded prekindergarten programs. She also is leading a pilot study that examines the family routines and resources of foster families. Before joining Erikson in January 2006, she was a senior researcher at Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago. There she led evaluation studies related to families’ social service use, early childhood programs, foster care services, and home visitation programs for families with young children. She has a Ph.D. from the Human Development and Social Policy Program at Northwestern University.
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How Jacqueline Jones is the assistant commissioner for early childhood in the Division of Early Childhood Education at the New Jersey Department of Education. Her expertise is in early childhood education research. She worked for 15 years at the Educational Testing Service (ETS) as senior research scientist and director of both Early Childhood Research and Development and Initiatives in Early Childhood and Literacy. This work focused on the study and implementation of appropriate early childhood assessment systems. She and her colleagues have worked with school districts and Head Start programs in New Jersey and nationally on assessment-related professional development projects. She also developed the Understanding Early Science Learning program, a set of videotape and print materials to help document the evidence of young children’s science understanding. Part of the ETS Pathwise Professional Development Series, the program is for early childhood teachers, staff developers, and university teacher educators. She has a Ph.D. in communication sciences and disorders: learning disabilities from Northwestern University. Luis M. Laosa is principal research scientist (emeritus) in the Center for Education Policy and Research at the ETS. His research has focused on children’s learning and psychological development, academic achievement, families and schools as learning environments, cultural and linguistic diversity, assessment and testing, educational and social policies toward children, and psychosocial stresses of intercultural migration and their impact on human development and social adaptation. He is the author of numerous scientific and scholarly publications and has served on several professional committees, including the Board of Scientific Advisors of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Technical Planning Group of the National Education Goals Panel, and as chair of the Committee on Child Development and Social Policy of the Society for Research in Child Development. He is a former editor of Revista Interamericana de Psicologia/Interamerican Journal of Psychology. At the NRC, he was a member of the Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy, BOTA, and the Committee on Goals 2000 and the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities. He received certification in school psychology and professional certification and license
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How in general psychology, served as clinical assistant professor of psychology in the Department of Psychiatry of the University of Texas Medical School at San Antonio, and served on the faculty of the Graduate School of Education in early childhood development at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Texas at Austin. Kathleen McCartney is the dean of the Faculty of Education and the Lesser professor in early childhood development at Harvard University. She is a developmental psychologist whose research informs theoretical questions on early experience and development as well as policy questions on child care, early childhood education, poverty, and parenting. For the past 15 years, she has served as a principal investigator on the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a study of 1,350 children from birth through age 15. She is the editor (with Deborah Phillips) of The Handbook of Early Childhood Development. Her work has been informed by her experience as the director of the University of New Hampshire Child Study and Development Center, a laboratory school for children from birth through kindergarten. She has a Ph.D. from Yale University. Marie C. McCormick is Sumner and Esther Feldberg professor of maternal and child health in the Department of Society, Human Development, and Health in the Harvard School of Public Health. She is also professor of pediatrics at the Harvard Medical School and senior associate director of the Infant Follow-up Program at Children’s Hospital. Her research involves epidemiological and health services research investigations in areas related to infant mortality and the outcomes of high-risk neonates. She is currently conducting projects on the outcomes of infants experiencing neonatal complications like low birth weight, interventions potentially ameliorating adverse outcomes, and the evaluation of programs designed to improve the health of families and children. She is a member of IOM and has served on its Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Health Outcomes and the Committee on Immunization Safety Review. She has an M.D. from the Johns Hopkins Medical School and an
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How Sc.D. from the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Deborah J. Stipek is dean of the School of Education at Stanford University. Her work concerns instructional effects on children’s achievement motivation, early childhood education, elementary education, and school reform. She has worked in the U.S. Senate and with the Office of Head Start. While a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, she served as director of the Corinne Seeds University Elementary School (pre-K through sixth grade) and the Urban Education Studies Center. At the NRC, she served for 5 years on the NRC/IOM Board on Children, Youth, and Families and chaired the NRC/IOM Committee for Increasing High School Students’ Engagement and Motivation to Learn. She has a B.S. in psychology from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from Yale University. Susan B. Van Hemel (Study Director) is a senior program officer in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the NRC. Previous projects at the NRC include a study of behavioral modeling and simulation, a study of staffing standards for aviation safety inspectors at the Federal Aviation Administration, studies of Social Security disability determination for individuals with visual and hearing impairments, and workshops on technology for adaptive aging and on decision making in older adults. She has also done work for a previous employer on vision requirements for commercial drivers and on commercial driver fatigue, as well as many years of other work on human performance and training. She is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and its technical groups on perception and performance and aging. She has a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the Johns Hopkins University. Mark R. Wilson is a professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. His interests focus on measurement and applied statistics. His work spans a range of issues in measurement and assessment, from the development of new statistical models for analyzing measurement data; to the development of new assessments in subject matter areas, such as
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Early Childhood Assessment: Why, What, and How science education, patient-reported outcomes, and child development; to policy issues in the use of assessment data in accountability systems. He has recently published three books: Constructing Measures: An Item Response Modeling Approach is an introduction to modern measurement; Explanatory Item Response Models: A Generalized Linear and Nonlinear Approach (with Paul De Boeck) introduces an overarching framework for the statistical modeling of measurements that makes available new tools for understanding the meaning and nature of measurement; and Towards Coherence Between Classroom Assessment and Accountability explores the issues relating to the relationships between large-scale assessment and classroom-level assessment. At the NRC, he chaired the Committee on Test Design for K-12 Science Achievement. He is the founding editor of Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives. He has a Ph.D. in educational measurement and educational statistics from the University of Chicago. Martha Zaslow is the vice president for research at Child Trends and area director for the early child development content area. Her research takes an ecological perspective, considering the contributions of different contexts to the development of children in low-income families, including the family, early care and education, and policy contexts. In studying the role of the family, she has focused especially on parenting, carrying out observational studies of mother-child interaction. In studying early care and education, her work has focused on patterns of child care use among low-income families and on strategies to improve child care quality. She has a particular interest in the professional development of those working in early childhood settings and its relation to quality and to child outcomes. With respect to the policy context, she has studied the use of funding from the Child Care and Development Fund to improve child care quality, state initiatives to improve children’s school readiness, and impacts on children of different welfare reform policies. At the NRC, she was a member of the NRC/IOM Committee on Promoting Child and Family Well-Being Through Family Work Policies: Building a Knowledge Base to Inform Policies and Practice. She has a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University.
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