JAMES R. SCHLESINGER is chair of the MITRE Corporation and a senior advisor for the investment banking firm, Lehman Brothers. He is a consultant to the U.S. Department of Defense, a member of the Defense Policy Board, a member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council, and director for Peabody Energy, KFx, Inc., and Sandia National Corporation. Dr. Schlesinger was the nation’s first secretary of energy and also served as director of Central Intelligence, secretary of defense, and chair of the Atomic Energy Commission. Dr. Schlesinger received a B.A. degree summa cum laude from Harvard College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was selected for the Frederick Sheldon Prize Fellowship. He received his M.A. and doctoral degrees in economics from Harvard University.


HAROLD T. SHAPIRO is president emeritus of Princeton University and a professor of economics and public affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He served as president of Princeton from 1988 to 2001 and president of the University of Michigan from 1980 to 1988. Dr. Shapiro chaired the National Bioethics Advisory Committee under President Clinton and served on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under President Bush. He holds a bachelor’s degree from McGill University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Princeton University as well as 14 honorary doctoral degrees. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the American Philosophical Society, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, a member of the board of directors of Dow Chemical Company, and a member of the board of overseers of the Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Dr. Shapiro is currently chairing the National Research Council study, “America’s Energy Future: Technology Opportunities, Risks, and Tradeoffs.”


STEVEN R. SPECKER is president and chief executive officer of the Electric Power Research Institute. Prior to joining EPRI, Dr. Specker served as president of Specker Consulting, LLC, where he provided operational and strategic planning services to technology companies serving the global electric power industry. In January 2003, he retired from General Electric as vice president of global marketing for GE Energy where he oversaw development of products and services for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. He holds a B.S. degree in engineering science, an M.S. in nuclear engineering, and a doctorate in nuclear engineering from Iowa State University.


CHARLES M. VEST is president of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering and vice chair of the National Research Council. Prior to his election as NAE president, Dr. Vest served as president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1990 to 2004. During his tenure, the Massachusetts Institute of



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