Sometimes these technologies can be very straightforward yet have a major impact, Chu observed. At the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a team led by Ashok Gadgil developed a cookstove that is four times more efficient than the three-stone stove traditionally used in Darfur (Figure 10.3). Each stove annually avoids the emission of 2 tons of carbon dioxide per year (a typical car emits 4 tons of carbon dioxide per year). It also produces much less indoor air pollution, which is responsible for the deaths of more than a million people worldwide each year. The cost is less than $20, including a modest profit to the local manufacturer. “The energy problem can be greatly advanced by pretty low-tech stuff,” said Chu. “In the poorest part of the developing world, quite modest things can have a profound impact.”

FIGURE 10.3 A cookstove designed in Berkeley, California, and manufactured in the Sudan avoids 10 tons of carbon dioxide emissions over its 5-year life. SOURCE: Roy Kaltschmidt, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

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