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OCR for page 141
Appendix C Glossary Clade Group of species Exascale Computing at quintillions of flops per second Giant Molecular Cloud A large cloud of molecular gas and small solid particles from which new generations of stars form Heuristic Algorithm based on one or more rules of thumb rather than on a theoretical model Magnetohydrodynamics Study of the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids Morphology External character of an organism Multicore Pertaining to a computer chip with multiple processing units on it, or a com- puter that includes such chips Ontology Set of defined concepts that characterize a domain Orographic Caused by airflow over hills or mountains Petaflop Quadrillion floating point operations Petascale Computing at quadrillions of flops per second Phenotype Observable characteristics of an individual 141

OCR for page 141
142 THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF HIGH-END CAPABILITY COMPUTING Phylogenetics Relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their evolutionary history Stiff differential equations Coupled differential equations that include some terms that lead to rapid variations; they must be handled with special solvers to avoid instabilities Symplectic integrators Discretizations that have a Hamiltonian structure analogous to that of the dynamics being approximated Teraflop Trillion floating point operations Terascale Computing at trillions of flops per second