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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment N Committee and Staff Biographical Information COMMITTEE MEMBERS WILLIAM J. PERRY, Co-chair, is the Michael and Barbara Berberian Professor at Stanford University, with a joint appointment at the Stanford Institute for International Studies (SIIS) and the School of Engineering. He is also a senior fellow at SIIS and the Hoover Institution and serves as co-director of the Preventive Defense Project, a research collaboration of Stanford and Harvard universities. He was the co-director of the Center for International Security and Arms Control from 1988 to 1993, during which time he was also a half-time professor at Stanford. Dr. Perry was the 19th secretary of defense for the United States, serving from February 1994 to January 1997. He previously served as deputy secretary of defense (1993-1994) and as under secretary of defense for research and engineering (1977-1981). Dr. Perry is on the board of directors of several emerging high-tech companies and is chair of Global Technology Partners. His previous business experience includes serving as a laboratory director for General Telephone and Electronics (1954-1964); founder and president of ESL Inc. (1964-1977); executive vice-president of Hambrecht & Quist, Inc. (1981-1985); and founder and chairman of Technology Strategies and Alliances (1985-1993). He is an expert in U.S. foreign policy, national security, and arms control. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS). He received a B.S. and M.S. from Stanford University and a Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University, all in mathematics.
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment CHARLES M. VEST, Co-chair, is president of the National Academy of Engineering and president emeritus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He became president of MIT in 1990 and served in that position until December 2004. Dr. Vest was a director of DuPont for 14 years and of IBM for 13 years, was vice chair of the U.S. Council on Competitiveness for eight years, and served on various federal committees and commissions, including the President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology during the Clinton and Bush administrations, the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, the Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education, the Secretary of State’s Advisory Committee on Transformational Diplomacy, and the Rice-Chertoff Secure Borders and Open Doors Advisory Committee. He serves on the boards of several non-profit organizations and foundations devoted to education, science, and technology. In July 2007 he was elected to serve as president of NAE for six years. He has authored a book on holographic interferometry and two books on higher education. He has received honorary doctoral degrees from ten universities and was awarded the 2006 National Medal of Technology by President George W. Bush. W. EARL BOEBERT is an expert on information security, with experience in national security and intelligence as well as commercial applications. Currently retired, he was a senior scientist at Sandia National Laboratories. He has 30 years experience in communications and computer security, is the holder or co-holder of 12 patents, and has participated in National Research Council (NRC) studies on security matters. Prior to joining Sandia, he was the technical founder and chief scientist of Secure Computing Corporation, where he developed the Sidewinder security server, a system that currently protects several thousand sites. Prior to that, he worked for 22 years at Honeywell, rising to the position of senior research fellow. At Honeywell he worked on secure systems, cryptographic devices, flight software, and a variety of real-time simulation and control systems, and he won Honeywell’s highest award for technical achievement for his part in developing a very-large-scale radar landmass simulator. He developed and presented a course on systems engineering and project management that was eventually given to over 3,000 students in 13 countries. He served on the NRC committees that produced Computers at Risk: Computing in the Information Age; For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information; and Information Technology for Counterterrorism: Immediate Actions and Future Possibilities. He participated in the NRC workshops on “Cyber-Attack” and “Insider Threat.”
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment MICHAEL L. BRODIE is the chief scientist of Verizon Services Operations at Verizon Communications and is an adjunct professor at the National University of Ireland, Galway. Dr. Brodie works on large-scale strategic information technology (IT) challenges for Verizon Communications Corporation’s senior executives. His primary interest is delivering business value from advanced and emerging technologies and practices to enable business objectives while optimizing and transforming IT. He also investigates the relationships between economics, business, and technology and computing-communications convergence. His long-term industrial research focus is on advanced computational models and architectures and the large-scale information systems that they support. He is concerned with the “big picture,” business and technical contexts, core technologies, and “integration” within a large-scale, operational telecommunications environment. Dr. Brodie has authored over 150 books, chapters, journal articles, and conference papers. He has presented keynote talks, invited lectures, and short courses on many topics in over 30 countries. He is a member of the boards of several research foundations including the Semantic Technology Institutes International (2007-present); the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (2007-present); the advisory board of the School of Computer and Communication Sciences, école Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland (2001-present); the advisory board of the Digital Enterprise Research Institute, National University of Ireland (2003-present); Forrester Research, Inc. (2006-present); expert advisor to the Information Society Technologies priority of the European Commission’s Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes (2003-present); the VLDB (Very Large Databases) Endowment (1992-2004); and he is on the editorial board of several research journals. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Toronto in 1978. DUNCAN A. BROWN is a member of the principal staff and director of the Strategic Assessments Office (SAO) at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The SAO conducts broad-ranging analyses and assessments of national security strategy, policy, and technology trends that may affect APL. Recent efforts have included conducting an alternative futures exercise to examine potential geopolitical strategic futures and their impact on the military and related research and development, conducting an effort for the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Office of the Secretary of the Navy to examine the principles of war, providing technical analysis and advice to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and serving on a study panel sponsored by the National Reconnaissance Office and the Navy to assess the
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment future use of space. Prior efforts have included Submarine Force wartime readiness assessments, creation of the U.S. Navy’s Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Program, serving on a Naval Research and Advisory Committee Panel to examine issues associated with transitioning technology, and serving on the NRC Naval Studies Board to examine the role of experimentation in building future naval forces. Mr. Brown has also served on the Navy staff in the Pentagon as the science advisor to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, in the Pacific as the science advisor to the Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, and in the Pentagon as the director for Submarine Technology. Mr. Brown also headed the Hydrodynamics Branch at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Newport, R.I. Mr. Brown has received three Navy Superior Civilian Service awards. Mr. Brown’s formal education includes graduate work in national security studies at Georgetown and MIT. He was a fellow in MIT’s Seminar XXI Foreign Politics and International Relations in the National Interest Program. Mr. Brown also holds an M.S. degree from Johns Hopkins University in engineering management, an M.S. degree in ocean engineering from the University of Rhode Island, and a B.S. degree in engineering science from Hofstra University. FRED H. CATE is a distinguished professor, the C. Ben Dutton Professor of Law, adjunct professor of informatics, and director of the Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research at Indiana University. He is a senior policy advisor to the Center for Information Policy Leadership at Hunton & Williams LLP, a member of Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing Academic Advisory Board, and a member of the board of editors of Privacy & Information Law Report. He also serves as reporter for the American Law Institute’s project on Principles of the Law on Government Access to and Use of Personal Digital Information. Previously, he served as counsel to the Department of Defense Technology and Privacy Advisory Committee, was a reporter for the third report of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, and a member of the Federal Trade Commission’s Advisory Committee on Online Access and Security. He directed the Electronic Information Privacy and Commerce Study for the Brookings Institution, chaired the International Telecommunication Union’s High-Level Experts on Electronic Signatures and Certification Authorities, and served as a member of the United Nations Working Group on Emergency Telecommunications. Professor Cate is the author of many articles and books, including Privacy in the Information Age, The Internet and the First Amendment, and Privacy in Perspective. He researches and teaches in the areas of privacy, security, and other information policy and law issues. An elected member of the American Law Institute, he
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment attended Oxford University and received his J.D. and his A.B. with honors and distinction from Stanford University. RUTH A. DAVID is the president and chief executive officer of ANSER, a not-for-profit, public-service research institution that provides research and analytic support on issues relating to international and domestic terrorist threats. Dr. David is a member of the Department of Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC), NAE, and the Corporation for the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. She is vice chair of the HSAC Senior Advisory Committee of Academia and Policy Research and serves on the National Security Agency Advisory Board, the NRC Naval Studies Board, the NAE Committee on Engineering Education, the AAAS Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Technical Division Advisory Board, and the External Advisory Committee for Purdue University’s Homeland Security Institute. From September 1995 to September 1998, Dr. David was deputy director for science and technology at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). As technical advisor to the director of central intelligence, she was responsible for research, development, and deployment of technologies in support of all phases of the intelligence process. She represented the CIA on numerous national committees and advisory bodies, including the National Science and Technology Council and the Committee on National Security. Prior to moving to the CIA, she was director of advance information technologies at Sandia National Laboratories where she began her professional career. She is the recipient of many awards including the CIA’s Distinguished Intelligence Medal, the CIA Director’s Award, and the Director of NSA Distinguished Service Medal. She is a former adjunct professor at the University of New Mexico. Her research interests include digital and microprocessor-based system design, digital signal analysis, adaptive signal analysis, and system integration. Dr. David received her Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University. RUTH M. DAVIS is president and chief executive officer of the Pymatuning Group, Inc., which specializes in industrial modernization strategies and technology development. She has served on the boards of 12 corporations and private organizations and was a member of the board of regents of the National Library of Medicine from 1989 to 1992. She has chaired the board of trustees of the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Davis served as assistant secretary of energy for resource applications and deputy undersecretary of defense for research and advanced technology. She has taught at Harvard University and at the University of Pennsylvania, and she has served on the University of Pennsylvania’s board of overseers of the
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment School of Engineering and Applied Science. She has served on a number of advisory committees to the federal government and was on the NAE Council. She was elected to NAE in 1976. She has served on more than two dozen NRC panels and committees. She has a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Maryland. Her research interests include expediting the development process for law enforcement technologies, and she has worked extensively on means of identifying meaningful requirements for law enforcement technologies and ensuring adequacy of life cycle functions. She has studied and written on the technical and managerial features of the technology-based threat to information assets. WILLIAM H. DuMOUCHEL is chief statistical scientist at the Lincoln Safety Group of Phase Forward, Inc. His current research focuses on statistical computing and Bayesian hierarchical models, including applications to meta-analysis and data mining. Dr. DuMouchel is the inventor of the empirical Bayesian data mining algorithm known as GPS and its successor MGPS, which have been applied to the detection of safety signals in databases of spontaneous adverse drug event reports. These methods are now used within the Food and Drug Administration and industry. From 1996 through 2004, he was a senior member of the data mining research group at AT&T Laboratories. Before that, he was chief statistical scientist at BBN Software Products, where he was lead statistical designer of a software advisory system for data analysis and experimental design called RS/Discover and RS/Explore. Dr. DuMouchel has been on the faculties of the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Michigan, MIT, and most recently was professor of biostatistics and medical informatics at Columbia University from 1994-1996. He has also been an associate editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association, Statistics in Medicine, Statistics and Computing, and the Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. Dr. DuMouchel is an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and he has served previously on the NRC Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics. Recently he served on the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Postmarket Surveillance of Pediatric Medical Devices and is currently a member of the NRC Committee on National Statistics. He received his Ph.D. in statistics from Yale University. CYNTHIA DWORK is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research‘s Silicon Valley Laboratory, which she joined at its inception in 2001. Prior to that, she was a staff fellow at Compaq in 2000 to 2001, and from 1985 to 2000, she was a research staff member at the IBM Almaden Research Center. She has made seminal contributions in three areas of theoretical computer science: distributed computing, cryptography, and, most
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment recently, privacy-preserving analysis of data. A founding member of the Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, she is on the editorial boards of Information and Computation, the Journal of Cryptology, Internet Mathematics, and the Journal of Theoretical Computer Science. Dr. Dwork has been a member of the advisory board for the Center for Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science at Rutgers University for more than a decade and is still serving on the advisory board of the Bertinoro International Center for Informatics in Italy and on the Fellows Selection Committee of the International Association of Cryptologic Researchers. She received the Edsger W. Dijkstra Award in 2007 and was elected to both NAE and AAAS in 2008. STEPHEN E. FIENBERG is the Maurice Falk University Professor of Statistics and Social Science at Carnegie Mellon University in the Department of Statistics, the Machine Learning Department, and Cylab. He has served as dean of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University and as academic vice president of York University in Toronto, Canada. His current research interests include approaches to data confidentiality, record linkage, and disclosure limitation; modeling of network data; causation; machine learning and Bayesian mixed-membership models; foundations of statistical inference; sample surveys and randomized experiments; statistics and the law. He has participated in a wide array of NRC committees and workshops, including as chair of the Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph, chair of the Committee on National Statistics, and as a member of the National Academies’ Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Dr. Fienberg has also served as president of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and of the International Society for Bayesian Analysis. He is the author, co-author, or editor of numerous books including Discrete Multivariate Analysis: Theory and Practice; The Analysis of Cross-classified Categorical Data, and Who Counts? The Politics of Census-Taking in Contemporary America. He is an editor of the Annals of Applied Statistics and a founder of the Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality. He is a former editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association, founding co-editor of Chance, and served as co-editor of the “Section for Statistics” of the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. He holds a Ph.D. in statistics from Harvard University and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of AAAS and the Royal Society of Canada. ROBERT J. HERMANN is senior partner of Global Technology Partners, LLC, which specializes in providing strategic advice on national security and technology issues. In 1998, Dr. Hermann retired from United Technologies Corporation where he held the position of senior vice president,
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment science and technology. In this role, he was responsible for assuring the development of the company’s technical resources and the full exploitation of science and technology by the corporation. He was also responsible for the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). Dr. Hermann joined the company in 1982 as vice president, systems technology, in the electronics sector and later served in a series of assignments in the defense and space systems groups prior to being named vice president, science and technology. Prior to joining UTRC, he served for 20 years with NSA with assignments in research and development, operations, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In 1977, he was appointed principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for communications, command, control, and intelligence. In 1979, he was named assistant secretary of the U.S. Air Force for research, development, and logistics and, in parallel, was director of the National Reconnaissance Office. He received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Iowa State University. R. GIL KERLIKOWSKE is a 32-year law enforcement veteran and was appointed as the chief of police for the Seattle Police Department in August 2000. He is a former deputy director for the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, which provides federal grants to local police agencies in support of community policing services. He served as the police commissioner for Buffalo, New York, where his selection by the mayor became the first outside appointment in 30 years. Mr. Kerlikowske also served as the chief of police for two Florida cities—Fort Pierce and Port St. Lucie—both of which received the Attorney General’s Crime Prevention Award. In 1985 he was a visiting fellow at the National Institute of Justice where he designed an evaluation of police procedures throughout the country. He began his law enforcement career in 1972 as a police officer for the St. Petersburg Police in Florida. Mr. Kerlikowske also served in the U.S. Army Military Police. He holds B.A. and M.A. degrees in criminal justice from the University of South Florida and is a graduate of the National Executive Institute at the Federal Bureau of Investigations Academy. ORIN S. KERR is a professor of law at the George Washington University of School of Law. He is a prolific scholar in the area of criminal procedure and computer crime law. Professor Kerr’s articles have appeared in Harvard Law Review, Columbia Law Review, Stanford Law Review, Michigan Law Review, New York University Law Review, Georgetown Law Journal, Northwestern University Law Review, and many other journals. From 1998 to 2001, he was an honors program trial attorney in the Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section of the Criminal Division at the U.S. Department of Justice. He is a former law clerk for Judge Leonard I. Garth of
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit and for Justice Anthony M. Kennedy of the U.S. Supreme Court. Professor Kerr received a B.S.E. in mechanical and aerospace engineering from Princeton University, an M.S. in mechanical engineering from Stanford University, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. ROBERT W. LEVENSON is a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and is the director of the Institute of Personality and Social Research and the Berkeley Psychophysiology Laboratory. His research interests include the physiological, facial expressive, and subjective aspects of emotion, and the emotional changes that occur in neurodegenerative disorders and normal aging. He has published numerous papers on the autonomic nervous system. He has served as president of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, as president of the Association for Psychological Science, and as co-chair of the Behavioral Sciences Workgroup at the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Levenson received his B.A. in psychology from Georgetown University and his Ph.D. from Vanderbilt University in clinical psychology. TOM M. MITCHELL is the E. Fredkin Professor and founding head of the Machine Learning Department at Carnegie Mellon University. His research interests are generally in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience. His recent research has focused both on machine learning approaches to extracting structured information from unstructured text and on studying the neural representation of language in the human brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dr. Mitchell is a past president of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence, past chair of the AAAS Section on Information, Computing, and Communication, and author of the textbook Machine Learning. From 1999 to 2000, he served as chief scientist and vice president for WhizBang Labs, a company that employed machine learning to extract information from the Web. Dr. Mitchell has served on the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunication Board and on the committee that produced the report Information Technology for Counterterrorism: Immediate Actions and Future Possibilities. He testified at the U.S. House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs hearing on the potential uses of artificial intelligence to improve benefits claims processing at the Veterans’ Administration. Dr. Mitchell received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering with a computer science minor from Stanford University. TARA O’TOOLE is chief executive officer and director of the Center for Biosecurity at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), and professor of medicine and of public health at the University of Pittsburgh.
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment Dr. O’Toole was one of the original members of the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies and served as its director from 2001 to 2003. She was one of the principal authors and producers of “Dark Winter,” an influential exercise conducted in June 2001 to alert national leaders to the dangers of bioterrorist attacks. From 1993 to 1997, she served as the assistant secretary of energy for environment safety and health. As assistant secretary, Dr. O’Toole was the principal advisor to the secretary of energy on matters pertaining to protecting the environment and worker and public health from the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and Department of Energy laboratories. From 1989 to 1993, Dr. O’Toole was a senior analyst at the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), where she directed and participated in studies of health impacts on workers and the public due to environmental pollution resulting from nuclear weapons production. Dr. O’Toole is a board-certified internist and occupational medicine physician. She received her bachelor’s degree from Vassar College, her M.D. from George Washington University, and an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. She completed a residency in internal medicine at the Yale School of Medicine and a fellowship in occupational and environmental medicine at Johns Hopkins University. DARYL PREGIBON is a research scientist at Google, Inc. He is a recognized leader in data mining, the interdisciplinary field that combines statistics, artificial intelligence, and database research. From 1981 to 2004, he worked at Bell Labs and AT&T Labs and served as head of statistics research for fifteen years. He is a past member of the NRC Committee on National Statistics, the Committee on the Feasibility of a National Ballistics Database, and the Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics (past chair). He is a member of the National Advisory Committee for the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute and a former director of the Association for Computer Machinery’s (ACM’s) Special Interest Group on Knowledge Development and Data Mining. In 1985 he co-founded (with Bill Gale) the Society for Artificial Intelligence and Statistics. He has authored more than 60 publications and holds four patents. Dr. Pregibon received his Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Toronto and his M.Math. degree in statistics from the University of Waterloo. LOUISE RICHARDSON is executive dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University. She received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in history from Trinity College, Dublin, and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in government from Harvard University. From 1989 to 2001, Dr. Richardson was assistant and associate professor of government at Harvard. She teaches courses on terrorism at Harvard College, Graduate School, and Law School. A political scientist by training, Dr. Richardson
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment has specialized in international security with an emphasis on terrorist movements. Her recent publications include What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Enemy, Containing the Threat (2006); The Roots of Terrorism (2006); Democracy and Counterterrorism: Lessons from the Past (2007); and When Allies Differ (1996), along with numerous articles on international terrorism, British foreign and defense policy, security institutions, and international relations. She is co-editor of the SUNY Press series on terrorism. Dr. Richardson’s current research projects involve a study of patterns of terrorist violence and a study on counter-terrorism lessons to be derived from earlier experiences with terrorism. BEN A. SHNEIDERMAN is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and the Institute for Advanced Computer Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is a founding director of the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory (1983-2000). He has taught previously at the State University of New York (SUNY) and at Indiana University. He is a fellow of the ACM and the AAAS and received the ACM CHI (Computer Human Interaction) Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001. He has co-authored two textbooks, edited three technical books, and published more than 300 technical papers and book chapters. He co-authored Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think with Stu Card and Jock Mackinlay and The Craft of Information Visualization: Readings and Reflections with Ben Bederson. Dr. Shneiderman’s vision of the future is presented in his book Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies, which won the IEEE 2003 award for Distinguished Literary Contribution. He has consulted and lectured for many organizations including Apple, AT&T, Citicorp, General Electric, Honeywell, IBM Corporation, Intel Corporation, Microsoft, NCR, the Library of Congress, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and university research groups. He received his Ph.D. from SUNY at Stony Brook. DANIEL J. WEITZNER is co-director of MIT’s CSAIL Decentralized Information Group (DIG) and teaches Internet public policy in the MIT Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department. He is also policy director of the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C’s) technology and society activities. At DIG he leads research on the development of new technology and public policy models for addressing legal challenges raised by the Web, including privacy, intellectual property, identity management, and new regulatory models for the Web. At W3C he is responsible for Web standards needed to address public policy requirements, including the Platform for Privacy Preference (P3P) and XML Security technologies. He was the first to advocate user control technologies such as content filtering to protect children and to avoid government censor-
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment ship, and he played a critical role in the landmark Internet freedom of expression case in the U.S. Supreme Court, Reno v. ACLU (1997). In 1994, his advocacy work won legal protections for e-mail and Web logs in the U.S. Electronic Communications Privacy Act. Mr. Weitzner was co-founder and deputy director of the Center for Democracy and Technology and deputy policy director of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. He serves on the board of directors of the Center for Democracy and Technology, the Software Freedom Law Center, and the Internet Education Foundation. He has a law degree from Buffalo Law School and a B.A. in philosophy from Swarthmore College. His writings have appeared in Science, Yale Law Review, Communications of the ACM, Computerworld, IEEE Internet Computing, Wired Magazine, Social Research, and The Whole Earth Review. STAFF MEMBERS BETTY M. CHEMERS is a senior project officer at the National Research Council, which she joined in May 2005 after spending 30 years in the public and not-for-profit sectors working on criminal justice and juvenile justice issues. She currently directs two studies: one on terrorism prevention funded by the Department of Homeland Security and the National Science Foundation and a second study on an assessment of the research program of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funded by NIJ. Prior to this, she held numerous positions at the U.S. Department of Justice including director of the evaluation division of the NIJ (2002-2005) and deputy administrator for discretionary programs at the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1995-2001), where she oversaw its $100 million budget of research, demonstration, and training and technical assistance activities. Her non-federal service includes directing the planning and policy analysis division for the Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services and consulting on strategic planning, finance, and management issues with nonprofits. She holds an M.A. in history from Boston University and a B.A. in education/sociology from the University of Maryland. MICHAEL L. COHEN is a senior program officer for the NRC Committee on National Statistics. Previously, he was a mathematical statistician at the Energy Information Administration, an assistant professor in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, a research associate at the Committee on National Statistics, and a visiting lecturer at the Department of Statistics, Princeton University. His general area of research is the use of statistics in public policy, with particular interest in census undercount and model validation. He is also interested in robust estimation.
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment He has a B.S. degree in mathematics from the University of Michigan and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in statistics from Stanford University. HERBERT S. LIN is chief scientist of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council of the National Academies, where he has been the study director of major projects on public policy and information technology. These studies include a 1996 study on national cryptography policy (Cryptography’s Role in Securing the Information Society); a 1992 study on the future of computer science (Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Computer Science and Engineering); a 1999 study of the U.S. Department of Defense systems for command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence (Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges); a 2001 study on workforce issues in high technology (Building a Workforce for the Information Economy); and a 2002 study on protecting children from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation (Youth, Pornography, and the Internet). Prior to his NRC service, he was a professional staff member and staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee (1986-1990), where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He also has significant expertise in mathematics and science education. He received his doctorate in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. CAROL PETRIE is director of the NRC Committee on Law and Justice, a standing committee within the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. In this capacity since 1997, she has developed and supervised a wide range of projects resulting in NRC reports in such areas as juvenile crime, pathological gambling, transnational organized crime, prosecution, crime victimization, improving drug research, school violence, firearms, policing, and forensic science. Prior to 1997, she served as the director of planning and management at the National Institute of Justice, where she was responsible for policy development, budget, and administration. In 1994, she served as the acting director of the NIJ. Throughout her career she has worked in the area of criminal justice research, statistics, and public policy at the NIJ and at the Bureau of Justice Statistics. She has conducted research on violence and public policy and managed numerous research projects on the development of criminal behavior, domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, and improving the operations of the criminal justice system. JULIE ANNE SCHUCK has been a research associate at the NRC for over six years in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. She has worked on a number of different projects and workshops, includ-
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Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists: A Framework for Program Assessment ing those on improving undergraduate instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; understanding the technical and privacy dimensions of information for terrorism prevention; and assessing the research program of the NIJ. Prior to coming to the NRC, she was a research support specialist at Cornell University, where she conducted a study examining the under-representation of women in physics-based engineering majors. She holds an M.S. in education from Cornell University and a B.S. in engineering physics from the University of California, San Diego.